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Simulating galaxies in the reionization era with FIRE-2: galaxy scaling relations, stellar mass functions, and luminosity functions

Ma, Xiangcheng and Hopkins, Philip F. and Garrison-Kimmel, Shea and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Quataert, Eliot and Boylan-Kolchin, Michael and Hayward, Christopher C. and Feldmann, Robert and Kereš, Dušan (2018) Simulating galaxies in the reionization era with FIRE-2: galaxy scaling relations, stellar mass functions, and luminosity functions. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 478 (2). pp. 1694-1715. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty1024.

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We present a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations at z ≥ 5 from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project, spanning a halo mass range Mhalo ∼ 10^8–10^(12) M⊙ at z = 5. We predict the stellar mass–halo mass relation, stellar mass function, and luminosity function in several bands from z = 5 to 12. The median stellar mass–halo mass relation does not evolve strongly at z = 5–12. The faint-end slope of the luminosity function steepens with increasing redshift, as inherited from the halo mass function at these redshifts. Below z ∼ 6, the stellar mass function and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function slightly flatten below M* ∼ 10^(4.5) M⊙ (fainter than M_(1500) ∼ −12), owing to the fact that star formation in low-mass haloes is suppressed by the ionizing background by the end of reionization. Such flattening does not appear at higher redshifts. We provide redshift-dependent fitting functions for the SFR–M_(halo), SFR–M*, and broad-band magnitude–stellar mass relations. We derive the star formation rate density and stellar mass density at z = 5–12 and show that the contribution from very faint galaxies becomes more important at z > 8. Furthermore, we find that the decline in the z ∼ 6 UV luminosity function brighter than M_(1500) ∼ −20 is largely due to dust attenuation. Approximately 37 per cent (54 per cent) of the UV luminosity from galaxies brighter than M_(1500) = −13 (−17) is obscured by dust at z ∼ 6. Our results broadly agree with current data and can be tested by future observations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ma, Xiangcheng0000-0001-8091-2349
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Garrison-Kimmel, Shea0000-0002-4655-8128
Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André0000-0002-4900-6628
Quataert, Eliot0000-0001-9185-5044
Boylan-Kolchin, Michael0000-0002-9604-343X
Hayward, Christopher C.0000-0003-4073-3236
Feldmann, Robert0000-0002-1109-1919
Kereš, Dušan0000-0002-1666-7067
Additional Information:© 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2018 April 18. Received 2018 March 29; in original form 2017 June 19. Published: 21 April 2018. We thank J. J. Eldridge, Steven Finkelstein, Renyue Cen, Frank van den Bosch, Priya Natarajan, Avi Loeb, and Rychard Bouwens for helpful discussions. The simulations used in this paper were run on XSEDE computational resources (allocations TG-AST120025, TG-AST130039, TG-AST140023, and TG-AST140064). The analysis was performed on the Caltech compute cluster ‘Zwicky’ (NSF MRI award #PHY-0960291). Support for PFH was provided by an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, NASA ATP Grant NNX14AH35G, and NSF Collaborative Research Grant #1411920 and CAREER grant #1455342. Support for SGK was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF5-160136 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1412836 and AST-1517491, by NASA through grant NNX15AB22G, and by STScI through grant HST-AR-14562.001. EQ was supported by NASA ATP grant 12-APT12-0183, a Simons Investigator award from the Simons Foundation, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. MBK was also partially supported by NASA through HST theory grants (programmes AR-12836, AR-13888, AR-13896, and AR-14282) awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. RF is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 157591). DK was supported by NSF grant AST-1412153, funds from the University of California, San Diego, and a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.
Group:TAPIR, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASA Einstein FellowshipPF5-160136
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASA Hubble FellowshipAR-12836
NASA Hubble FellowshipAR-13888
NASA Hubble FellowshipAR-13896
NASA Hubble FellowshipAR-14282
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)157591
University of California, San DiegoUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution – galaxies: formation – galaxies: high-redshift – cosmology: theory
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180809-123958372
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Xiangcheng Ma, Philip F Hopkins, Shea Garrison-Kimmel, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère, Eliot Quataert, Michael Boylan-Kolchin, Christopher C Hayward, Robert Feldmann, Dušan Kereš; Simulating galaxies in the reionization era with FIRE-2: galaxy scaling relations, stellar mass functions, and luminosity functions, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 478, Issue 2, 1 August 2018, Pages 1694–1715,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:88696
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Aug 2018 20:13
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 00:29

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