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On the thermodynamic equilibrium in the universe

Zwicky, F. (1928) On the thermodynamic equilibrium in the universe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 14 (7). pp. 592-597. ISSN 0027-8424.

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With the establishing of the second law it was realized that all the actual processes on earth are irreversible and unidirectional in the sense of this law. The same is true for the solar system as the sun is radiating energy continually in an irreversible way. Because of the same phenomenon being connected with all the stars it seemed to be justified to extrapolate and to consider the actual universe as a unique one, being far from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and running down irrevocably toward a state of highest entropy. This seems to be the general opinion up to date.(1)

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Additional Information:© 1928 by the National Academy of Sciences. Communicated June 19, 1928.
Issue or Number:7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:ZWIpnas28
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8877
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Sep 2007
Last Modified:02 Oct 2019 23:55

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