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The California-Kepler Survey. VI: Kepler Multis and Singles Have Similar Planet and Stellar Properties Indicating a Common Origin

Weiss, Lauren M. and Isaacson, Howard T. and Marcy, Geoffrey W. and Howard, Andrew W. and Petigura, Erik A. and Fulton, Benjamin J. and Winn, Joshua N. and Hirsch, Lea and Sinukoff, Evan and Rowe, Jason F. (2018) The California-Kepler Survey. VI: Kepler Multis and Singles Have Similar Planet and Stellar Properties Indicating a Common Origin. Astronomical Journal, 156 (6). Art. No. 254. ISSN 1538-3881. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180815-110702844

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Abstract

The California-Kepler Survey (CKS) catalog contains precise stellar and planetary properties for the Kepler planet candidates, including systems with multiple detected transiting planets ("multis") and systems with just one detected transiting planet ("singles", although additional planets could exist). We compared the stellar and planetary properties of the multis and singles in a homogeneous subset of the full CKS-Gaia catalog. We found that sub-Neptune-sized singles and multis do not differ in their stellar properties or planet radii. In particular: (1.) The distributions of stellar properties M⋆, [Fe/H], and ν sin i for the Kepler sub-Neptune-sized singles and multis are statistically indistinguishable. (2.) The radius distributions of the sub-Neptune-sized singles and multis with P > 3 days are indistinguishable, and both have a valley at ~1.8 R⊕. However, there are significantly more detected short-period (P < 3 days), sub-Neptune-sized singles than multis. The similarity of the host-star properties, planet radii, and radius valley for singles and multis suggests a common origin. The similar radius valley, which is likely sculpted by photo-evaporation from the host star within the first 100 Myr, suggests that planets in both singles and multis spend much of the first 100 Myr near their present, close-in locations. One explanation that is consistent with the similar fundamental properties of singles and multis is that many of the singles are members of multi-planet systems that underwent planet–planet scattering.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aae70aDOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.03010arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Isaacson, Howard T.0000-0002-0531-1073
Marcy, Geoffrey W.0000-0002-2909-0113
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Fulton, Benjamin J.0000-0003-3504-5316
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Hirsch, Lea0000-0001-8058-7443
Sinukoff, Evan0000-0002-5658-0601
Rowe, Jason F.0000-0002-5904-1865
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 May 20; revised 2018 September 28; accepted 2018 October 1; published 2018 November 9. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of California, and California Institute of Technology, the University of Hawaii, and NASA. We thank James Owen, Hilke Schlichting, Daniel Fabrycky, and the anonymous referee for helpful conversations and feedback. Most of the data presented here were determined directly from observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. We are grateful to the time assignment committees of the University of Hawaii, the University of California, the California Institute of Technology, and NASA for their generous allocations of observing time that enabled this large project. Kepler was competitively selected as the tenth NASA Discovery mission. Funding for this mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate. L.M.W. acknowledges support from the Parrent Fellowship, the Trottier Family, and the Levy Family. A.W.H. acknowledges NASA grant NNX12AJ23G. E.A.P. acknowledges support from Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51365.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. for NASA under contract NAS 5-26555. L.H. acknowledges National Science Foundation grant AST-1009810. E.S. is supported by a post-graduate scholarship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. P.A.C. acknowledges National Science Foundation grant AST-1109612. Finally, the authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facilities: Keck:I (HIRES) - , Kepler. - Software: python2.7, scipy, pandas.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Parrent FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Trottier Family FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Levy Family FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASANNX12AJ23G
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51365.001-A
NASANAS 5-26555
NSFAST-1009810
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1109612
Subject Keywords:catalogs – planetary systems – planets and satellites: formation – planets and satellites: fundamental parameters – stars: fundamental parameters
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180815-110702844
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180815-110702844
Official Citation:Lauren M. Weiss et al 2018 AJ 156 254
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:88827
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Aug 2018 18:22
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 20:10

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