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An Excess of Jupiter Analogs in Super-Earth Systems

Bryan, Marta L. and Knutson, Heather A. and Lee, Eve J. and Fulton, B. J. and Batygin, Konstantin and Ngo, Henry and Meshkat, Tiffany (2019) An Excess of Jupiter Analogs in Super-Earth Systems. Astronomical Journal, 157 (2). Art. No. 52. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aaf57f.

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We use radial velocity (RV) observations to search for long-period gas giant companions in systems hosting inner super-Earth (1–4 R⊕, 1–10 M⊕) planets to constrain formation and migration scenarios for this population. We consistently refit published RV data sets for 65 stars and find nine systems with statistically significant trends indicating the presence of an outer companion. We combine these RV data with AO images to constrain the masses and semi-major axes of these companions. We quantify our sensitivity to the presence of long-period companions by fitting the sample with a power-law distribution and find an occurrence rate of 39% ± 7% for companions 0.5–20 M_(Jup) and 1–20 au. Half of our systems were discovered by the transit method, and half were discovered by the RV method. While differences in the RV baselines and number of data points between the two samples lead to different sensitivities to distant companions, we find that occurrence rates of gas giant companions in each sample are consistent at the 0.5σ level. We compare the frequency of Jupiter analogs in these systems to the equivalent rate from field star surveys and find that Jupiter analogs are more common around stars hosting super-Earths. We conclude that the presence of outer gas giants does not suppress the formation of inner super-Earths, and that these two populations of planets instead appear to be correlated. We also find that the stellar metallicities of systems with gas giant companions are higher than those without companions, in agreement with the well-established metallicity correlation from RV surveys of field stars.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bryan, Marta L.0000-0002-6076-5967
Knutson, Heather A.0000-0002-0822-3095
Lee, Eve J.0000-0002-1228-9820
Fulton, B. J.0000-0003-3504-5316
Batygin, Konstantin0000-0002-7094-7908
Ngo, Henry0000-0001-5172-4859
Meshkat, Tiffany0000-0001-6126-2467
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 June 21; revised 2018 November 20; accepted 2018 November 27; published 2019 January 18. This work was supported by NSF CAREER grant 1555095 and based in part on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory. We extend special thanks to those of Hawaiian ancestry on whose sacred mountain of Maunakea we are privileged to be guests. E.J.L. is supported by the Sherman Fairchild Fellowship from Caltech.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:methods: statistical – planetary systems – techniques: radial velocities
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180817-160159509
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Marta L. Bryan et al 2019 AJ 157 52
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:88944
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:20 Aug 2018 14:43
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 00:31

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