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The broad-band properties of the intermediate synchrotron peaked BL  Lac  S2  0109+22 from radio to VHE gamma-rays

Ansoldi, S. and Kiehlmann, S. and Readhead, A. C. S. (2018) The broad-band properties of the intermediate synchrotron peaked BL  Lac  S2  0109+22 from radio to VHE gamma-rays. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 480 (1). pp. 879-892. ISSN 0035-8711. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180914-093320938

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Abstract

The Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes observed S2 0109+22 in 2015 July during its flaring activity in high-energy gamma-rays observed by Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We analyse the MAGIC data to characterize the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission of S2 0109+22, which belongs to the subclass of intermediate synchrotron peak (ISP) BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. We study the multifrequency emission in order to investigate the source classification. Finally, we compare the source long-term behaviour to other VHE gamma-ray emitting (TeV) blazars. We performed a temporal and spectral analysis of the data centred around the MAGIC interval of observation (MJD 57225–57231). Long-term radio and optical data have also been investigated using the discrete correlation function. The redshift of the source is estimated through optical host-galaxy imaging and also using the amount of VHE gamma-ray absorption. The quasi-simultaneous multifrequency spectral energy distribution (SED) is modelled with the conventional one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. MAGIC observations resulted in the detection of the source at a significance level of 5.3σ. The VHE gamma-ray emission of S2 0109+22 is variable on a daily time scale. VHE gamma-ray luminosity of the source is lower than the average of TeV BL Lacs. The optical polarization and long-term optical/radio behaviour of the source are different from the general population of TeV blazars. All these findings agree with the classification of the source as an ISP BL Lac object. We estimate the source redshift as z = 0.36 ± 0.07. The SSC parameters describing the SED are rather typical for blazars.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty1753DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.02095arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kiehlmann, S.0000-0001-6314-9177
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Additional Information:© 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices). Accepted 2018 June 30. Received 2018 June 26; in original form 2018 April 19. Published: 05 July 2018. Part of this work is based on archival data, software, or online services provided by the Space Science Data Center – ASI. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2015-69818-P, FPA2012-36668, FPA2015-68378-P, FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P, and CSD2009-00064), and the Japanese JSPS and MEXT is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia ‘Severo Ochoa’ SEV-2012-0234 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’ MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382, and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT and scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DEAC02-76SF00515. The OVRO 40-m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-GesellschaftUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-69818-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2012-36668
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-68378-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-71042-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P
MultiDarkCSD2009-00064
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2012-0234
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2015-0548
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)MDM-2014-0369
Croatian Science FoundationIP-2016-06-9782
University of Rijeka13.12.1.3.02
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e ComunicaçõesUNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DEAC02-76SF00515
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)UNSPECIFIED
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
NASANNX08AW31G
NASANNX11A043G
NASANNX14AQ89G
NSFAST-0808050
NSFAST-1109911
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active – BL Lacertae objects: individual: S2 0109+22 – galaxies: jets – gamma-rays: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180914-093320938
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180914-093320938
Official Citation:MAGIC Collaboration, S Ansoldi, L A Antonelli, C Arcaro, D Baack, A Babić, B Banerjee, P Bangale, U Barres de Almeida, J A Barrio, J Becerra González, W Bednarek, E Bernardini, R Ch Berse, A Berti, J Besenrieder, W Bhattacharyya, C Bigongiari, A Biland, O Blanch, G Bonnoli, R Carosi, G Ceribella, A Chatterjee, S M Colak, P Colin, E Colombo, J L Contreras, J Cortina, S Covino, P Cumani, V D’Elia, P Da Vela, F Dazzi, A De Angelis, B De Lotto, M Delfino, J Delgado, F Di Pierro, A Domínguez, D Dominis Prester, D Dorner, M Doro, S Einecke, D Elsaesser, V Fallah Ramazani, A Fattorini, A Fernández-Barral, G Ferrara, D Fidalgo, L Foffano, M V Fonseca, L Font, C Fruck, S Gallozzi, R J García López, M Garczarczyk, M Gaug, P Giammaria, N Godinović, D Guberman, D Hadasch, A Hahn, T Hassan, M Hayashida, J Herrera, J Hoang, D Hrupec, S Inoue, K Ishio, Y Iwamura, Y Konno, H Kubo, J Kushida, A Lamastra, D Lelas, F Leone, E Lindfors, S Lombardi, F Longo, M López, C Maggio, P Majumdar, M Makariev, G Maneva, M Manganaro, K Mannheim, L Maraschi, M Mariotti, M Martínez, S Masuda, D Mazin, K Mielke, M Minev, J M Miranda, R Mirzoyan, A Moralejo, V Moreno, E Moretti, V Neustroev, A Niedzwiecki, M Nievas Rosillo, C Nigro, K Nilsson, D Ninci, K Nishijima, K Noda, L Nogués, S Paiano, J Palacio, D Paneque, R Paoletti, J M Paredes, G Pedaletti, P Peñil, M Peresano, M Persic, K Pfrang, P G Prada Moroni, E Prandini, I Puljak, J R Garcia, W Rhode, M Ribó, J Rico, C Righi, A Rugliancich, L Saha, T Saito, K Satalecka, T Schweizer, J Sitarek, I Šnidarić, D Sobczynska, A Stamerra, M Strzys, T Surić, F Tavecchio, P Temnikov, T Terzić, M Teshima, N Torres-Albà, S Tsujimoto, G Vanzo, M Vazquez Acosta, I Vovk, J E Ward, M Will, D Zarić, S Ciprini (Fermi-LAT Collaboration), R Desiante (Fermi-LAT Collaboration), S Barcewicz, T Hovatta, J Jormanainen, L Takalo, R Reinthal, N Mankuzhiyil, F Wierda, A Lähteenmäki, J Tammi, M Tornikoski, R J C Vera, S Kiehlmann, W Max-Moerbeck, A C S Readhead; The broad-band properties of the intermediate synchrotron peaked BL Lac S2 0109+22 from radio to VHE gamma-rays, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 480, Issue 1, 11 October 2018, Pages 879–892, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty1753
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:89631
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:14 Sep 2018 17:29
Last Modified:14 Sep 2018 17:29

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