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Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter

Li, Liming and Jiang, X. and West, R. A. and Gierasch, P. J. and Perez-Hoyos, S. and Sanchez-Lavega, A. and Fletcher, L. N. and Fortney, J. J. and Knowles, B. and Porco, C. C. and Baines, K. H. and Fry, P. M. and Mallama, A. and Achterberg, R. K. and Simon, A. A. and Nixon, C. A. and Orton, G. S. and Dyudina, U. A. and Ewald, S. P. and Schmude, R. W., Jr. (2018) Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter. Nature Communications, 9 . Art. No. 3709. ISSN 2041-1723. PMCID PMC6137063.

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The radiant energy budget and internal heat are fundamental properties of giant planets, but precise determination of these properties remains a challenge. Here, we report measurements of Jupiter’s radiant energy budget and internal heat based on Cassini multi-instrument observations. Our findings reveal that Jupiter’s Bond albedo and internal heat, 0.503 ± 0.012 and 7.485 ± 0.160 W m^(−2) respectively, are significantly larger than 0.343 ± 0.032 and 5.444 ± 0.425 Wm^(−2), the previous best estimates. The new results help constrain and improve the current evolutionary theories and models for Jupiter. Furthermore, the significant wavelength dependency of Jupiter’s albedo implies that the radiant energy budgets and internal heat of the other giant planets in our solar system should be re-examined. Finally, the data sets of Jupiter’s characteristics of reflective solar spectral irradiance provide an observational basis for the models of giant exoplanets.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Li, Liming0000-0002-5257-9849
Jiang, X.0000-0001-8932-3807
West, R. A.0000-0002-4320-2599
Fortney, J. J.0000-0002-9843-4354
Fry, P. M.0000-0002-7367-6541
Orton, G. S.0000-0001-7871-2823
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2018. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit Received: 6 December 2017. Accepted: 20 July 2018. Published online: 13 September 2018. The leading author (Liming Li) wants to thank one of his postdoc advisors, Dr. Barney J. Conrath, who encouraged him to conduct the studies of the radiant energy budgets of giant planets. In addition, we gratefully acknowledge the Cassini CIRS, ISS, and VIMS teams for recording the raw data sets. L.L. acknowledges the support from the NASA ROSES Cassini Data Analysis Program and Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools Program. X.J. is supported by NASA grants NNX13AC04G, NNX13AK34G, and NNX16AG46G. S.P.-H. and A.S.-L. are supported by MINECO project AYA2015-65041-P (FEDER/EU) and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-765-13. Author Contributions: L.L. performed the computations/analyses of Jupiter’s radiant energy budget/internal heat and wrote the manuscript. X.J. processed the Cassini ISS data set and contributed to the computation. R.A.W., S.P.E., U.A.D., B.K. and C.C.P. contributed to the Cassini ISS data processing and calibrating. P.M.F. and K.H.B contributed to the Cassini VIMS data processing and calibrating. A.M. and R.W.S. Jr. provided long-term data sets of Jupiter’s albedo. X.J., R.A.W., P.J.G., S.P.-H., A.S.-L., L.N.F., J.J.F., B.K., C.C.P., K.H.B., P.M.F., A.M., R.K.A., A.A.S., C.A.N., G.S.O., U.A.D., S.P.E. and R.W.S. Jr. contributed to the data analysis. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. Data availability: The original data recorded by the three Cassini instruments (CIRS, ISS, and VIMS) are publicly available and can be freely downloaded from the NASA Planetary Data System ( The data for the most important scientific results are presented in the article and the Supplementary Information. The processed data sets and the corresponding codes of Jupiter’s radiant energy budget are available from L.L. upon reasonable request. The authors declare no competing interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-65041-P
Grupos Gobierno VascoIT-765-13
PubMed Central ID:PMC6137063
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180917-125104391
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:89681
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Sep 2018 20:55
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 20:18

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