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Widespread Shocks in the Nucleus of NGC 404 Revealed by Near-infrared Integral Field Spectroscopy

Boehle, A. and Larkin, J. E. and Armus, L. and Wright, S. A. (2018) Widespread Shocks in the Nucleus of NGC 404 Revealed by Near-infrared Integral Field Spectroscopy. Astrophysical Journal, 866 (2). Art. No. 79. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aadf8d.

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We present high spatial resolution, integral field spectrograph (IFS) observations of the nearby low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 404 at 1.25 μm (J band) and 2.2 μm (K band) near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Although NGC 404 is thought to host an intermediate-mass black hole (BH) at its center, it has been unclear whether accretion onto the BH or another mechanism such as shock excitation drives its LINER emission at optical/NIR wavelengths. We use the OSIRIS IFS at Keck Observatory behind laser guide star adaptive optics to map the strength and kinematics of [Fe ii], H_2, and hydrogen recombination lines at spatial resolutions of 1 pc across the central 30 pc of the galaxy. The H_2 gas is in a central rotating disk, and ratios of multiple H_2 lines indicate that the molecular gas is thermally excited, with some contribution from UV fluorescence. The [Fe ii] emission is more extended and diffuse than the molecular gas and has a different kinematic structure that reaches higher velocities/dispersions. We also map the strength of the CO stellar absorption feature and constrain the dominant age of the nuclear stellar population to ~1 Gyr. Finally, we find regions across the nucleus of NGC 404 with [Fe ii]/Paβ line ratios up to 6.5, ~2.5 times higher than the ratio measured from spatially integrated spectra. From these high line ratios, we conclude that shocks are the dominant physical mechanism exciting NGC 404's LINER emission and argue that a possible source of this shock excitation is a supernova remnant.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Boehle, A.0000-0003-0439-7634
Larkin, J. E.0000-0001-7687-3965
Armus, L.0000-0003-3498-2973
Wright, S. A.0000-0003-1034-8054
Additional Information:© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2017 June 28; revised 2018 August 30; accepted 2018 September 4; published 2018 October 15. The authors thank the anonymous referee for helpful and constructive comments about this manuscript. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Finally, the authors recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are very thankful to have had the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facility: W.M. Keck Observatory. -
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active; galaxies: individual (NGC 404) ; galaxies: nuclei; infrared: galaxies; techniques: imaging spectroscopy
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181016-134538804
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A. Boehle et al 2018 ApJ 866 79
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:90277
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Oct 2018 23:14
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 03:31

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