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GW170817: Measurements of Neutron Star Radii and Equation of State

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. X. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barish, B. C. and Berger, B. K. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S and Blackburn, J. K. and Bork, R. and Brooks, A. F. and Brunett, S. and Cahillane, C. and Callister, T. A. and Cepeda, C. B. and Coughlin, M. W. and Couvares, P. and Coyne, D. C. and Ehrens, P. and Eichholz, J. and Etzel, T. and Feicht, J. and Gossan, S. E. and Gushwa, K. E. and Gustafson, E. K. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Hulko, M. and Isi, M. and Kamai, B. and Kanner, J. B. and Kondrashov, V. and Korth, W. Z. and Kozak, D. B. and Lazzarini, A. and Markowitz, A. and Maros, E. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and McIver, J. and Meshkov, S. and Nevin, L. and Pedraza, M. and Quintero, E. A. and Reitze, D. H. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Sachdev, S. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Taylor, R. and Torrie, C. I. and Urban, A. L. and Vajente, G. and Vass, S. and Venugopalan, G. and Wade, A. R. and Wallace, L. and Weinstein, A. J. and Williams, R. D. and Willis, J. L. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, S. and Yamamoto, H. and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. and Barkett, K. and Blackman, J. and Chen, Y. and Chua, A. J. K. and Li, X. and Ma, Y. and Pang, B. and Scheel, M. and Tso, R. and Varma, V. (2018) GW170817: Measurements of Neutron Star Radii and Equation of State. Physical Review Letters, 121 (16). Art. No. 161101. ISSN 0031-9007. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20181017-130426671

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Abstract

On 17 August 2017, the LIGO and Virgo observatories made the first direct detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of a neutron star binary system. The detection of this gravitational-wave signal, GW170817, offers a novel opportunity to directly probe the properties of matter at the extreme conditions found in the interior of these stars. The initial, minimal-assumption analysis of the LIGO and Virgo data placed constraints on the tidal effects of the coalescing bodies, which were then translated to constraints on neutron star radii. Here, we expand upon previous analyses by working under the hypothesis that both bodies were neutron stars that are described by the same equation of state and have spins within the range observed in Galactic binary neutron stars. Our analysis employs two methods: the use of equation-of-state-insensitive relations between various macroscopic properties of the neutron stars and the use of an efficient parametrization of the defining function p(ρ) of the equation of state itself. From the LIGO and Virgo data alone and the first method, we measure the two neutron star radii as R_1=10.8^(+2.0)_(−1.7)  km for the heavier star and R_2=10.7^(+2.1)_(−1.5)  km for the lighter star at the 90% credible level. If we additionally require that the equation of state supports neutron stars with masses larger than 1.97  M⊙ as required from electromagnetic observations and employ the equation-of-state parametrization, we further constrain R_1=11.9^(+1.4)_(−1.4)  km and R_2=11.9^(+1.4)_(−1.4)  km at the 90% credible level. Finally, we obtain constraints on p(ρ) at supranuclear densities, with pressure at twice nuclear saturation density measured at 3.5^(+2.7)_(−1.7)×10^(34)  dyn cm^(−2) at the 90% level.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.161101DOIArticle
https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.161101PublisherArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.11581arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Callister, T. A.0000-0001-9892-177X
Isi, M.0000-0001-8830-8672
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Korth, W. Z.0000-0003-3527-1348
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Williams, R. D.0000-0002-9145-8580
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Pang, B.0000-0002-5697-2162
Additional Information:© 2018 American Physical Society. Received 5 June 2018; revised manuscript received 25 July 2018; published 15 October 2018. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat Valenciana, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFI), the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, MPS, INFN, CNRS and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for provision of computational resources. This article has been assigned the document number LIGO-P1800115. The authors would like to thank N. K. Johnson-McDaniel, W. Kastaun, J. L. Friedman, G. Baym, J. M. Lattimer, L. Rezzolla, M. B. Tsang, and M. C. Miller for their useful comments. This article has been assigned the document number LIGO-P1800115.
Group:LIGO
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Paris Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Industry CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnolgia, Inovação e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)UNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Taiwan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP1800115
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181017-130426671
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20181017-130426671
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:90309
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:18 Oct 2018 16:35
Last Modified:18 Oct 2018 16:35

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