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Dust on a Hawaiian volcano: A regional model using field measurements to estimate transport and deposition

Douglas, Madison M. and Stock, Jonathan D. and Bishaw, Kai'ena, II and Cerovski-Darriau, Corina and Bedford, David R. (2018) Dust on a Hawaiian volcano: A regional model using field measurements to estimate transport and deposition. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 43 (13). pp. 2794-2807. ISSN 0197-9337. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20181024-130150352

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Abstract

The western slopes of Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano are mantled by fine‐grained soils, the record of volcanic airfall and eolian deposition. Where exposed, strong winds transport this sediment across West Hawaii, affecting tourism and local communities with decreased air and water quality. Operations on US Army's Ke'amuku Maneuver Area (KMA) have the potential to increase dust flux from these deposits. The USGS established 18 ground monitoring sites and sampling locations surrounding KMA. For over 3 years, each station measured vertical and horizontal dust flux, while co‐located anemometers measured wind speed and direction. We used these datasets to develop a parsimonious regional model for dust supply and transport to assess whether KMA is a net dust sink or source. We found that dust transport is most highly correlated with threshold wind speeds of 8 m/s. We used this value as the regional average threshold wind speed for dust entrainment. Using a model that partitions measured horizontal dust flux into inward‐ and outward‐directed components, we estimate that KMA is currently a net dust sink. Geochemical analysis of dust samples illustrates that local organics and carbonate make up 64% of dust mass, the remainder being volcanic silt and fine sand. Measured vertical dust deposition rates of 0.006 mm/yr are similar to 0.004 mm/yr of deposition predicted from taking the divergence of dust across KMA's boundary. These rates are low compared with pre‐historic rates of ~0.2–0.3 mm/yr, from radiocarbon dating of buried soils. KMA's soils record persistent deposition over millennia, at rates that imply episodic dust storms. Such events created a soil‐mantled landscape in the middle of a largely Pleistocene rocky landscape. A substantial portion of fine‐grained soils in other leeward Hawaiian Island landscapes may have formed from similar eolian deposition, and not direct weathering of parent rock. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4433DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Douglas, Madison M.0000-0002-0762-4719
Cerovski-Darriau, Corina0000-0002-0543-0902
Additional Information:Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Issue Online: 07 October 2018; Version of Record online: 04 July 2018; Accepted manuscript online: 29 May 2018; Manuscript accepted: 23 May 2018; Manuscript revised: 16 May 2018; Manuscript received: 27 July 2017. Funding Information: Engineer Research and Development Center. Grant Number: Military Interagency Purchase Request (MIPR) 10216. US Army Military Interagency Purchase Request (MIPR). Grant Number: 10216996B
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
US Army10216
US Army10216996B
Subject Keywords:Hawaii; Wind Erosion; Dust Transport; Field Measurement; Dust Chemistry
Issue or Number:13
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181024-130150352
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20181024-130150352
Official Citation:Douglas, M. M., Stock, J. D., Bishaw, K. II, Cerovski‐Darriau, C., and Bedford, D. R. (2018) Dust on a Hawaiian volcano: A regional model using field measurements to estimate transport and deposition. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 43: 2794–2807. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4433
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:90394
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Oct 2018 20:51
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 20:24

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