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Y Dwarf Trigonometric Parallaxes from the Spitzer Space Telescope

Martin, Emily C. and Kirkpatrick, J. Davy and Beichman, Charles A. and Smart, Richard L. and Faherty, Jacqueline K. and Gelino, Christopher R. and Cushing, Michael C. and Schneider, Adam C. and Wright, Edward L. and Lowrance, Patrick and Ingalls, James and Tinney, C. G. and McLean, Ian S. and Logsdon, Sarah E. and Lebreton, Jérémy (2018) Y Dwarf Trigonometric Parallaxes from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 867 (2). Art. No. 109. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aae1af.

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Y dwarfs provide a unique opportunity to study free-floating objects with masses <30 M_(Jup) and atmospheric temperatures approaching those of known Jupiter-like exoplanets. Obtaining distances to these objects is an essential step toward characterizing their absolute physical properties. Using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) [4.5] images taken over baselines of ~2–7 years, we measure astrometric distances for 22 late-T and early Y dwarfs, including updated parallaxes for 18 objects and new parallax measurements for 4 objects. These parallaxes will make it possible to explore the physical parameter space occupied by the coldest brown dwarfs. We also present the discovery of six new late-T dwarfs, updated spectra of two T dwarfs, and the reclassification of a new Y dwarf, WISE J033605.04−014351.0, based on Keck/NIRSPEC J-band spectroscopy. Assuming that effective temperatures are inversely proportional to absolute magnitude, we examine trends in the evolution of the spectral energy distributions of brown dwarfs with decreasing effective temperature. Surprisingly, the Y dwarf class encompasses a large range in absolute magnitude in the near- to mid-infrared photometric bandpasses, demonstrating a larger range of effective temperatures than previously assumed. This sample will be ideal for obtaining mid-infrared spectra with the James Webb Space Telescope because their known distances will make it easier to measure absolute physical properties.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Martin, Emily C.0000-0002-0618-5128
Kirkpatrick, J. Davy0000-0003-4269-260X
Beichman, Charles A.0000-0002-5627-5471
Smart, Richard L.0000-0002-4424-4766
Faherty, Jacqueline K.0000-0001-6251-0573
Cushing, Michael C.0000-0001-7780-3352
Schneider, Adam C.0000-0002-6294-5937
Wright, Edward L.0000-0001-5058-1593
Lowrance, Patrick0000-0001-8014-0270
Ingalls, James0000-0003-4714-1364
Tinney, C. G.0000-0002-7595-0970
Logsdon, Sarah E.0000-0002-9632-9382
Lebreton, Jérémy0000-0003-1476-5963
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 April 17; revised 2018 September 5; accepted 2018 September 6; published 2018 November 5. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This publication makes use of data products from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work is based in part on observations made with the Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology. R.L.S' research was supported by the 2015 Henri Chrétien International Research Grant administered by the American Astronomical Society. E.C.M. thanks Dr. Gregory Mace for useful discussions, feedback, and mentoring. Facilities: Spitzer(IRAC) - Spitzer Space Telescope satellite, Keck:II(NIRSPEC) - , Palomar(WIRC) - , IRSA. - Software: REDSPEC (; Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013; The Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018); MOPEX (; Scipy (; Numpy (Oliphant 2006); Matplotlib (Hunter 2007). Note added in proof: We also note that in Bedin & Fontanive (2018), they measured a parallax for WISE J154151.65–225024.9 to be 169 ±2 mas, which is consistent with our own value of 167.1 ± 4.2 mas.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
American Astronomical SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:parallaxes – brown dwarfs – stars: individual (WISE J033605.04−014351.0)
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181106-124759592
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Emily C. Martin et al 2018 ApJ 867 109
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:90672
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Nov 2018 21:56
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 03:34

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