A Caltech Library Service

How Animals Move: An Integrative View

Dickinson, Michael H. and Farley, Claire T. and Full, Robert J. and Koehl, M. A. R. and Kram, Rodger and Lehman, Steven (2000) How Animals Move: An Integrative View. Science, 288 (5463). pp. 100-106. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.288.5463.100.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Recent advances in integrative studies of locomotion have revealed several general principles. Energy storage and exchange mechanisms discovered in walking and running bipeds apply to multilegged locomotion and even to flying and swimming. Nonpropulsive lateral forces can be sizable, but they may benefit stability, maneuverability, or other criteria that become apparent in natural environments. Locomotor control systems combine rapid mechanical preflexes with multimodal sensory feedback and feedforward commands. Muscles have a surprising variety of functions in locomotion, serving as motors, brakes, springs, and struts. Integrative approaches reveal not only how each component within a locomotor system operates but how they function as a collective whole.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Dickinson, Michael H.0000-0002-8587-9936
Additional Information:© 2000 American Association for the Advancement of Science. The authors thank A. Ahn, A. Biewener, F. Fish, M. Garcia, R. Ritzmann, T. Roberts, M. Wake, G. Lauder, R. Marsh, and T. R. Nichols for helpful comments on the manuscript and figures. Supported by grants from NSF (IBN-9723424), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (FD97-23425), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) (N00014-99-0882) to M.H.D.; NIH (AR44008A) to C.T.F.; ONR (N00014-98-0747) and DARPA (N00014-98-1-0669) to R.J.F.; NSF (OCE-9907120) to M.A.R.K.; and NIH (AR44688) to R.K.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)FD97-23425
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-99-0882
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-98-0747
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-98-1-0669
Issue or Number:5463
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181116-153956875
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:How Animals Move: An Integrative View BY MICHAEL H. DICKINSON, CLAIRE T. FARLEY, ROBERT J. FULL, M. A. R. KOEHL, RODGER KRAM, STEVEN LEHMAN Science 07 Apr 2000: Vol. 288, Issue 5463, pp. 100-106 DOI: 10.1126/science.288.5463.100
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:90993
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Nov 2018 00:02
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 03:37

Repository Staff Only: item control page