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Crystal Detectors in Particle Physics

Newman, Harvey B. and Gratta, Giorgio and Zhu, Ren-yuan (1994) Crystal Detectors in Particle Physics. In: Scintillator and Phosphor Materials. Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings. No.348. Materials Research Society , Pittsburgh, PA, Art. No. 3. ISBN 9781558992481.

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We review the principal characteristics driving the design of precision calorimeters composed of inorganic crystal scintillators now in operation (L3, CLEO II) or developed for the next generation of particle physics experiments. The unique discovery potential of these detectors (1.5 to 50 m^3 of crystals; 10^4 to > 10^5 elements) is the result of their high electron and photon energy resolution over a wide energy range, uniform hermetic acceptance and fine granularity. Experiments at CERN's multi-TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will search for the Higgs particles thought to be responsible for mass, and for many other new physics processes. In order to exploit the intrinsically high resolution of crystal detectors, exceptionally high speed (1 to 30 ns decay time) and radiation resistance are required. BaF_2 and CeF_3 are currently the preferred choices, and higher density alternatives such as PbWO_4 are under investigation. Lower energy, high luminosity experiments that will measure rare particle decays, and explore the violation of the fundamental “CP” symmetry that may be related to the predominance of matter over antimatter in our universe, have chosen Cesium Iodide for its combination of high light output, speed, and radiation resistance. Recent developments by Caltech include the use of photons generated by an H− beam from an RFQ accelerator to calibrate and provide sub-percent resolution in the L3 BGO calorimeter, and an in situ optical bleaching technique that renders large BaF_2 crystals now mass produced in China radiation hard up to dose levels ≳l 10 MegaRads.

Item Type:Book Section
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Newman, Harvey B.0000-0003-0964-1480
Zhu, Ren-yuan0000-0003-3091-7461
Additional Information:© 1994 Materials Research Society.
Series Name:Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings
Issue or Number:348
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181119-144827533
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Official Citation:Newman, H., Gratta, G., & Zhu, R. (1994). Crystal Detectors in Particle Physics. MRS Proceedings, 348, 3. doi:10.1557/PROC-348-3
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:91031
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Nov 2018 23:05
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 20:31

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