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Physical mechanisms of seismic-wave attenuation

Jackson, David D. and Anderson, Don L. (1970) Physical mechanisms of seismic-wave attenuation. Reviews of Geophysics, 8 (1). pp. 1-63. ISSN 8755-1209. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20181127-152731582

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Abstract

The theoretical and experimental evidence concerning mechanisms likely to be responsible for the attenuation of seismic waves are reviewed. Intergranular thermoelastic relaxation, atomic diffusion, and dislocation mechanisms cannot be ruled out as significant causes of seismic attenuation, but the most effective mechanisms seem to be associated with partial melting, grain‐boundary relaxation, and a poorly understood mechanism called ‘high‐temperature, internal‐friction background’ which obeys an equation of the form Q^(‐1) = (A/ƒ) exp (—H*/RT). Here Q^(−1) is a dimensionless measure of anelasticity, f is the frequency, T is the absolute temperature, and A, H*, and A, H*,and RR are constants for a material of uniform composition and grain size. Many of the mechanisms considered here have a strongly frequency‐dependent Q^(−1). However, in a material as complex as a rock, there is unlikely to be a single discrete relaxation time or activation energy, or a single ‘typical’ grain size. The observed Q^(−1) is likely to result from a superposition of several mechanisms and involve a spectrum of parameters leading to weaker frequency dependence than is predicted from a single simple mechanism. The seismic data cannot at present resolve the question of whether or not Q^(−1) has an intrinsic frequency dependence. The extent and the limitations of the available seismic data are discussed. Experimental data on the attenuation of oxides are summarized, the measurements at high temperature and low frequency being emphasized.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1029/RG008i001p00001DOIArticle
Additional Information:© 1970 by the American Geophysical Union. Manuscript received July 1968; revised May 3, 1969. Acknowledgments. The research was partly supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Aerospace Research, United States Air Force, under AFOSR contract AF-49(638)-1337; National Science Foundation Grant GA 1003 (High Pressure); and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Grant NGR 22-009-176.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)AF-49(638)-1337
NSFGA 1003
NASANGR 22-009-176
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Division of Geological Sciences1570
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20181127-152731582
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20181127-152731582
Official Citation:Jackson, D. D., and D. L. Anderson (1970), Physical mechanisms of seismic‐wave attenuation, Rev. Geophys., 8(1), 1–63, doi: 10.1029/RG008i001p00001
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:91243
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Nov 2018 23:36
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 20:33

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