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Symmetry-breaking-induced nonlinear optics at a microcavity surface

Zhang, Xueyue and Cao, Qi-Tao and Wang, Zhuo and Liu, Yu-xi and Qiu, Cheng-Wei and Yang, Lan and Gong, Qihuang and Xiao, Yun-Feng (2019) Symmetry-breaking-induced nonlinear optics at a microcavity surface. Nature Photonics, 13 (1). pp. 21-24. ISSN 1749-4885.

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Second-order nonlinear optical processes lie at the heart of many applications in both classical and quantum regimes1,2,3. Inversion symmetry, however, rules out the second-order nonlinear electric-dipole response in materials widely adopted in integrated photonics (for example, SiO_2, Si and Si_3N_4). Here, we report nonlinear optics induced by symmetry breaking at the surface of an ultrahigh-Q silica microcavity under a sub-milliwatt continuous-wave pump. By dynamically coordinating the double-resonance phase matching, a second harmonic is achieved with an unprecedented conversion efficiency of 0.049% W^(−1), 14 orders of magnitude higher than that of the non-enhancement case. In addition, the nonlinear effect from the intrinsic symmetry breaking at the surface can be identified unambiguously, with guided control of the pump polarization and the recognition of the second-harmonic mode distribution. This work not only extends the emission frequency range of silica photonic devices, but also lays the groundwork for applications in ultra-sensitive surface analysis.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Zhang, Xueyue0000-0001-8994-0629
Xiao, Yun-Feng0000-0002-0296-7130
Additional Information:© 2019 Springer Nature Publishing. Received 31 January 2018. Accepted 12 October 2018. Published 19 November 2018. The authors thank K. J. Vahala, M. Lončar, C. Tian, Y. R. Shen, T. F. Heinz, X. Yi, D. Lippolis, H. Wang, Q.-F. Yang and L. Shao for helpful discussions. This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 11825402, 11654003, 61435001, 11474011, 61611540346 and 11527901), the National Key R&D Program of China (grant no. 2016YFA0301302), and the High-performance Computing Platform of Peking University. Author Contributions: X.Z. and Q.-T.C. fabricated the microcavity samples, built the experimental set-up and carried out measurements. X.Z., Q.-T.C., Z.W., Y.-x.L. and C.-W.Q. built the theoretical model and peformed numerical simulations. Y.-F.X., X.Z., Q.-T.C., C.-W.Q. and L.Y. wrote the manuscript with input from all co-authors. All the authors analysed the data and contributed to the discussion. Y.-F.X. conceived the idea and designed the experiment. Y.-F.X. and Q.G. supervised the project. These authors contributed equally: Xueyue Zhang, Qi-Tao Cao. Data availability: The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The authors declare no competing interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China11825402
National Natural Science Foundation of China11654003
National Natural Science Foundation of China61435001
National Natural Science Foundation of China11474011
National Natural Science Foundation of China61611540346
National Natural Science Foundation of China11527901
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0301302
Peking UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190102-155137874
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:92001
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:03 Jan 2019 16:21
Last Modified:03 Jan 2019 16:21

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