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Earthquake early warning using future generation gravity strainmeters

Juhel, K. and Ampuero, J. P. and Barsuglia, M. and Bernard, P. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Fiorucci, D. and Harms, J. and Montagner, J.‐P. and Vallee, M. and Whiting, B. F. (2018) Earthquake early warning using future generation gravity strainmeters. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 123 (12). pp. 10889-10902. ISSN 2169-9313.

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Recent studies reported the observation of prompt elastogravity signals during the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku earthquake, recorded with broadband seismometers and gravimeter between the rupture onset and the arrival of the seismic waves. Here we show that to extend the range of magnitudes over which the gravity perturbations can be observed and reduce the time needed for their detection, high‐precision gravity strainmeters under development could be used, such as torsion bars, superconducting gradiometers, or strainmeters based on atom interferometers. These instruments measure the differential gravitational acceleration between two seismically isolated test masses and are initially designed to observe gravitational waves around 0.1 Hz. Our analysis involves simulations of the expected gravity strain signals generated by fault rupture, based on an analytical model of gravity perturbations in a homogeneous half‐space. We show that future gravity strainmeters should be able to detect prompt gravity perturbations induced by earthquakes larger than M7, up to 1,000 km from the earthquake centroid within P waves travel time and up to 120 km within the first 10 s of rupture onset, provided a sensitivity in gravity strain of 10^(−15) Hz^(−1/2) at 0.1 Hz can be achieved. Our results further suggest that, in comparison to conventional P wave‐based earthquake‐early warning systems, gravity‐based earthquake‐early warning systems could perform faster detections of large offshore subduction earthquakes (at least larger than M7.3). Gravity strainmeters could also perform earlier magnitude estimates, within the duration of the fault rupture, and therefore complement current tsunami warning systems.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Juhel, K.0000-0003-0881-6904
Ampuero, J. P.0000-0002-4827-7987
Bernard, P.0000-0002-9577-9218
Harms, J.0000-0002-7332-9806
Montagner, J.‐P.0000-0001-9958-3012
Vallee, M.0000-0001-8049-4634
Whiting, B. F.0000-0002-8501-8669
Additional Information:© 2018 American Geophysical Union. Received 12 SEP 2018; Accepted 1 DEC 2018; Accepted article online 8 DEC 2018; Published online 21 DEC 2018. We acknowledge the financial support from the UnivEarthS Labex program at Sorbonne Paris Cité (ANR‐10‐LABX‐0023 and ANR‐11‐IDEX‐0005‐02) and the financial support of the Agence Nationale de la Recherche through the grant ANR‐14‐CE03‐0014‐01. J.‐P. M. acknowledges the financial support of I.U.F. (Institut universitaire de France). J. P. A. acknowledges funding by the French government through the "Investissements d'Avenir UCAJEDI" project managed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (grant ANR‐15‐IDEX‐01). We thank Tomofumi Shimoda for stimulating discussions. Numerical computations were partly performed on the S‐CAPAD platform, IPGP, France. Python routines used to compute the expected gravity strain signal (Harms, 2016) and noise are available at the GitHub repository
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR‐10‐LABX‐0023
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR‐11‐IDEX‐0005‐02
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR‐14‐CE03‐0014‐01
Institut Universitaire de France (IUF)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR‐15‐IDEX‐01
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190204-151051490
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Juhel, K., Ampuero, J.‐P., Barsuglia, M., Bernard, P., Chassande‐Mottin, E., Fiorucci, D., et al. (2018). Earthquake early warning using future generation gravity strainmeters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 123, 10,889–10,902.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:92636
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:05 Feb 2019 01:10
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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