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Effects of Gas on Formation and Evolution of Stellar Bars and Nuclear Rings in Disk Galaxies

Seo, Woo-Young and Kim, Woong-Tae and Kwak, SungWon and Hsieh, Pei-Ying and Han, Cheongho and Hopkins, Phil F. (2019) Effects of Gas on Formation and Evolution of Stellar Bars and Nuclear Rings in Disk Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal, 872 (1). Art. No. 5. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aafc5f.

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We run self-consistent simulations of Milky Way-sized, isolated disk galaxies to study the formation and evolution of a stellar bar as well as a nuclear ring in the presence of gas. We consider two sets of models with cold or warm disks that differ in the radial velocity dispersions, and vary the gas fraction f_(gas) by fixing the total disk mass. A bar forms earlier and more strongly in the cold disks with larger f_(gas), while gas progressively delays the bar formation in the warm disks. The bar formation enhances a central mass concentration, which in turn causes the bar to decay temporarily, after which it regrows in size and strength, eventually becoming stronger in models with smaller f_(gas). Although all bars rotate fast in the beginning, they rapidly turn to slow rotators. In our models, only the gas-free, warm disk undergoes rapid buckling instability, while other disks thicken more gradually via vertical heating. The gas driven inward by the bar potential readily forms a star-forming nuclear ring. The ring is very small when it first forms and grows in size over time. The ring star formation rate is episodic and bursty due to feedback, and is well correlated with the mass inflow rate to the ring. Some expanding shells produced by star formation feedback are sheared out in the bar regions and collide with dust lanes to appear as filamentary interbar spurs. The bars and nuclear rings formed in our simulations have properties similar to those in the Milky Way.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Seo, Woo-Young0000-0002-5444-3320
Kim, Woong-Tae0000-0003-4625-229X
Kwak, SungWon0000-0003-0957-6201
Hsieh, Pei-Ying0000-0001-9155-3978
Han, Cheongho0000-0002-2641-9964
Hopkins, Phil F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 October 1; revised 2019 January 2; accepted 2019 January 6; published 2019 February 6. We gratefully acknowledge a thoughtful report from the referee, and helpful discussions with Eve Ostriker. This work was supported by grant (2017R1A4A1015178) of the National Research Foundation of Korea. The computation of this work was supported by the Supercomputing Center/Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information with supercomputing resources including technical support (KSC-2018-C3-0015). Software: GIZMO (Hopkins 2015), GalIC (Yurin & Springel 2014), additional data analyses and visualizations were made using IDL version 8.6 and IPython (Pérez & Granger 2007).
Group:TAPIR, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Research Foundation of Korea2017R1A4A1015178
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI)KSC-2018-C3-0015
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution – galaxies: ISM – galaxies: kinematics and dynamics – galaxies: nuclei – galaxies: structure – stars: formation
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190206-095615659
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Woo-Young Seo et al 2019 ApJ 872 5
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:92710
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Feb 2019 18:09
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 03:52

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