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The failure of stellar feedback, magnetic fields, conduction, and morphological quenching in maintaining red galaxies

Su, Kung-Yi and Hopkins, Philip F. and Hayward, Christopher C. and Ma, Xiangcheng and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Kereš, Dušan and Orr, Matthew E. and Chan, T. K. and Robles, Victor H. (2019) The failure of stellar feedback, magnetic fields, conduction, and morphological quenching in maintaining red galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 487 (3). pp. 4393-4408. ISSN 0035-8711.

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The quenching ‘maintenance’ and related ‘cooling flow’ problems are important in galaxies from Milky Way mass through clusters. We investigate this in haloes with masses ∼10^(12)−10^(14)M⊙⁠, using non-cosmological high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations with the FIRE-2 (Feedback In Realistic Environments) stellar feedback model. We specifically focus on physics present without AGN, and show that various proposed ‘non-AGN’ solution mechanisms in the literature, including Type Ia supernovae, shocked AGB winds, other forms of stellar feedback (e.g. cosmic rays), magnetic fields, Spitzer–Braginskii conduction, or ‘morphological quenching’ do not halt or substantially reduce cooling flows nor maintain ‘quenched’ galaxies in this mass range. We show that stellar feedback (including cosmic rays from SNe) alters the balance of cold/warm gas and the rate at which the cooled gas within the galaxy turns into stars, but not the net baryonic inflow. If anything, outflowing metals and dense gas promote additional cooling. Conduction is important only in the most massive haloes, as expected, but even at ∼10^(14)M⊙ reduces inflow only by a factor ∼2 (owing to saturation effects and anisotropic suppression). Changing the morphology of the galaxies only slightly alters their Toomre-Q parameter, and has no effect on cooling (as expected), so has essentially no effect on cooling flows or maintaining quenching. This all supports the idea that additional physics, e.g. AGN feedback, must be important in massive galaxies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Su, Kung-Yi0000-0003-1598-0083
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Hayward, Christopher C.0000-0003-4073-3236
Ma, Xiangcheng0000-0001-8091-2349
Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André0000-0002-4900-6628
Kereš, Dušan0000-0002-1666-7067
Orr, Matthew E.0000-0003-1053-3081
Chan, T. K.0000-0003-2544-054X
Robles, Victor H.0000-0002-9497-9963
Additional Information:© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2019 May 24. Received 2019 May 7; in original form 2018 September 23. Published: 03 June 2019. We thank Eliot Quataert for useful discussion. The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. Support for PFH was provided by an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, NASA ATP Grant NNX14AH35G, and NSF Collaborative Research Grant #1411920 and CAREER grant #1455342. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1412836, AST-1517491, AST-1715216, and CAREER award AST-1652522, by NASA through grant NNX15AB22G, by CXO through grant TM7-18007, and by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. DK was supported by NSF grant AST-1715101 and the Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. VHR acknowledges support from UC-MEXUS and CONACyT through the postdoctoral fellowship. Numerical calculations were run on the Caltech compute cluster ‘Wheeler,’ allocations from XSEDE TG-AST130039 and PRAC NSF.1713353 supported by the NSF, and NASA HEC SMD-16-7592.
Group:TAPIR, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Cottrell Scholar of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States (UC MEXUS)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:MHD– methods: numerical – cosmic rays –Galaxy: evolution – galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium –X-rays: galaxies: clusters
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190206-105607525
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Kung-Yi Su, Philip F Hopkins, Christopher C Hayward, Xiangcheng Ma, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère, Dušan Kereš, Matthew E Orr, T K Chan, Victor H Robles, The failure of stellar feedback, magnetic fields, conduction, and morphological quenching in maintaining red galaxies, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 3, August 2019, Pages 4393–4408,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:92721
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Feb 2019 18:13
Last Modified:07 Apr 2020 18:47

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