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Cosmic Rays or Turbulence can Suppress Cooling Flows (Where Thermal Heating or Momentum Injection Fail)

Su, Kung-Yi and Hopkins, Philip F. and Hayward, Christopher C. and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Kereš, Dušan and Ma, Xiangcheng and Orr, Matthew E. and Chan, T. K. and Robles, Victor H. (2020) Cosmic Rays or Turbulence can Suppress Cooling Flows (Where Thermal Heating or Momentum Injection Fail). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 491 (1). pp. 1190-1212. ISSN 0035-8711. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190206-105651728

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Abstract

The quenching ‘maintenance’ and ‘cooling flow’ problems are important from the Milky Way through massive cluster elliptical galaxies. Previous work has shown that some source of energy beyond that from stars and pure magnetohydrodynamic processes is required, perhaps from active galactic nuclei, but even the qualitative form of this energetic input remains uncertain. Different scenarios include thermal ‘heating’, direct wind or momentum injection, cosmic ray heating or pressure support, or turbulent ‘stirring’ of the intracluster medium (ICM). We investigate these in 10¹²−10¹⁴M⊙ haloes using high-resolution non-cosmological simulations with the FIRE-2 (Feedback In Realistic Environments) stellar feedback model, including simplified toy energy injection models, where we arbitrarily vary the strength, injection scale, and physical form of the energy. We explore which scenarios can quench without violating observational constraints on energetics or ICM gas. We show that turbulent stirring in the central ∼100 kpc, or cosmic ray injection, can both maintain a stable low-star formation rate halo for >Gyr time-scales with modest energy input, by providing a non-thermal pressure that stably lowers the core density and cooling rates. In both cases, associated thermal-heating processes are negligible. Turbulent stirring preserves cool-core features while mixing condensed core gas into the hotter halo and is by far the most energy efficient model. Pure thermal heating or nuclear isotropic momentum injection require vastly larger energy, are less efficient in lower mass haloes, easily overheat cores, and require fine tuning to avoid driving unphysical temperature gradients or gas expulsion from the halo centre.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz3011DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.03997arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Hayward, Christopher C.0000-0003-4073-3236
Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André0000-0002-4900-6628
Kereš, Dušan0000-0002-1666-7067
Ma, Xiangcheng0000-0001-8091-2349
Orr, Matthew E.0000-0003-1053-3081
Chan, T. K.0000-0003-2544-054X
Robles, Victor H.0000-0002-9497-9963
Additional Information:© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2019 October 19. Received 2019 October 3; in original form 2018 December 11. Published: 05 November 2019. We thank Andrew Fabian for useful discussions and valuable comments. We also thank Eliot Quataert for conversations and collaboration. Support for PFH was provided by an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, NASA ATP Grant NNX14AH35G, and NSF Collaborative Research Grant #1411920 and CAREER grant #1455342. The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1517491, AST-1715216, and CAREER award AST-1652522, by NASA through grant 17-ATP17-0067, by CXO through grant TM7-18007, and by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. DK was supported by NSF grant AST-1715101 and the Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. TKC was supported by NSF grant AST-1412153. VHR acknowledges support from UC-MEXUS and CONACyT through the postdoctoral fellowship. Numerical calculations were run on the Caltech compute cluster ‘Wheeler’, allocations from XSEDE TG-AST130039 and PRAC NSF.1713353 supported by the NSF, and NASA HEC SMD-16-7592.
Group:TAPIR, Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASANNX14AH35G
NSFAST-1411920
NSFAST-1455342
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1517491
NSFAST-1715216
NSFAST-1652522
NASA17-ATP17-0067
NASATM7-18007X
Cottrell Scholar of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1715101
NSFAST-1412153
University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States (UC MEXUS)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
NSFTG-AST130039
NSFOAC-1713353
NASASMD-16-7592
Subject Keywords:MHD, turbulence, methods: numerical, cosmic rays, galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium, X-rays: galaxies: clusters
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190206-105651728
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190206-105651728
Official Citation:Kung-Yi Su, Philip F Hopkins, Christopher C Hayward, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère, Dušan Kereš, Xiangcheng Ma, Matthew E Orr, T K Chan, Victor H Robles, Cosmic rays or turbulence can suppress cooling flows (where thermal heating or momentum injection fail), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 491, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages 1190–1212, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz3011
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:92733
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Feb 2019 15:52
Last Modified:20 Feb 2020 17:23

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