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Time-variation of Jupiter's internal magnetic field consistent with zonal wind advection

Moore, K. M. and Cao, H. and Bloxham, J. and Stevenson, D. J. and Connerney, J. E. P. and Bolton, S. J. (2019) Time-variation of Jupiter's internal magnetic field consistent with zonal wind advection. Nature Astronomy, 3 (8). pp. 730-735. ISSN 2397-3366. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-124029594

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Abstract

Determination of the time dependency (secular variation) of a planet’s magnetic field provides a window into understanding the dynamo responsible for generating its field. However, of the six Solar System planets with active dynamos, secular variation has been firmly established only for Earth. Here, we compare magnetic field observations of Jupiter from the Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and Ulysses spacecraft (acquired 1973–1992) with a new Juno reference model (JRM09). We find a consistent, systematic change in Jupiter’s field over this 45-year time span, which cannot be explained by changes in the magnetospheric field or by changing the assumed rotation rate of Jupiter. Through a simplified forward model, we find that the inferred change in the field is consistent with advection of the field by Jupiter’s zonal winds, projected down to 93–95% of Jupiter’s radius (where the electrical conductivity of the hydrogen envelope becomes sufficient to advect the field). This result demonstrates that zonal wind interactions with Jupiter’s magnetic field are important and lends independent support to atmospheric and gravitational-field determinations of the profile of Jupiter’s deep winds.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0772-5DOIArticle
https://rdcu.be/bDqKXPublisherFree ReadCube access
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Moore, K. M.0000-0003-3162-437X
Cao, H.0000-0002-6917-8363
Bloxham, J.0000-0001-8556-2675
Stevenson, D. J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Connerney, J. E. P.0000-0001-7478-6462
Bolton, S. J.0000-0002-9115-0789
Additional Information:© 2019 Springer Nature Publishing AG. Received 02 October 2018; Accepted 02 April 2019; Published 20 May 2019. Data availability: All data and models used in this study are publicly available. The Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and Ulysses magnetometer data used in this study are available online on the Planetary Data System. The Jupiter Juno magnetic field model we use is publicly available1. More information regarding the figures and results of this study is available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. All authors acknowledge support from the NASA Juno Mission. K.M.M. is supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) programme, and the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS) Merit Fellowship. We thank Richard Holme for helpful comments. Author Contributions: K.M.M, H.C. and J.B. designed the study and wrote the manuscript. K.M.M. performed the data analysis, while H.C. performed the zonal wind calculations. All authors contributed to discussions, as well as editing and revising the manuscript. J.E.P.C. is the principal investigator of the Juno magnetometer investigation, and S.J.B. is the principal investigator of the Juno Mission. The authors declare no competing interests.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASAUNSPECIFIED
National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:8
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-124029594
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-124029594
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:93994
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:20 May 2019 19:38
Last Modified:20 Apr 2020 08:47

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