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A high-speed, high-performance, microfabricated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph

Whiting, Joshua J. and Myers, Edward and Manginell, Ronald P. and Moorman, Mathew W. and Anderson, John and Fix, Cory S. and Washburn, Cody and Staton, Al and Porter, Daniel and Graf, Darin and Wheeler, David R. and Howell, Stephen and Richards, John and Monteith, Haley and Achyuthan, Komandoor E. and Roukes, Michael and Simonson, Robert J. (2019) A high-speed, high-performance, microfabricated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph. Lab on a Chip, 19 (9). pp. 1633-1643. ISSN 1473-0197. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190328-093305110

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Abstract

A small, consumable-free, low-power, ultra-high-speed comprehensive GC×GC system consisting of microfabricated columns, nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) cantilever resonators for detection, and a valve-based stop-flow modulator is demonstrated. The separation of a highly polar 29-component mixture covering a boiling point range of 46 to 253 °C on a pair of microfabricated columns using a Staiger valve manifold in less than 7 seconds, and just over 4 seconds after the ensemble holdup time is demonstrated with a downstream FID. The analysis time of the second dimension was 160 ms, and peak widths in the second dimension range from 10–60 ms. A peak capacity of just over 300 was calculated for a separation of just over 6 s. Data from a continuous operation testing over 40 days and 20 000 runs of the GC×GC columns with the NEMS resonators using a 4-component test set is presented. The GC×GC-NEMS resonator system generated second-dimension peak widths as narrow as 8 ms with no discernable peak distortion due to under-sampling from the detector.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1039/c9lc00027eDOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Porter, Daniel0000-0002-4219-3782
Achyuthan, Komandoor E.0000-0003-3870-5535
Roukes, Michael0000-0002-2916-6026
Additional Information:© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2019. Received 9th January 2019, Accepted 18th March 2019. First published on 18th March 2019. This work was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Microsystems Technology Office (DARPA MTO) under Micro Gas Analyzers Program contract number 017040518. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. This paper describes objective technical results and analysis. Any subjective views or opinions that might be expressed in the paper do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Department of Energy or the United States Government. The authors gratefully acknowledge consultations with Professor Richard Sacks at the University of Michigan, who inspired this avenue of research; and the assistance of Atilla Kiss and Akos Sule at Neptune Research. A part of this paper was supported by Sandia National Laboratories' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project # 199974. Author contributions: Formal analysis: J. W., E. M., J. R.; methodology: J. W., J. R., R. S.; writing-original draft: J. W., R. S.; writing-review and editing: H. M., K. A.; investigation: J. W., E. M., C. F.; data curation: J. W., E. M., J. R.; conceptualization: J. W., R. S., E. M., M. R.; resources: R. M., M. M., J. A., C. W., A. S., D. P., D. G., D. W.; software: S. H., E. M. There are no conflicts to declare.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)017040518
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-NA0003525
Sandia National Laboratories199974
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190328-093305110
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190328-093305110
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:94236
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:28 Mar 2019 17:11
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:02

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