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The Curious Case of KOI 4: Confirming Kepler's First Exoplanet Detection

Chontos, Ashley and Huber, Daniel and Latham, David W. and Bieryla, Allyson and Van Eylen, Vincent and Bedding, Timothy R. and Berger, Travis and Buchhave, Lars A. and Campante, Tiago L. and Chaplin, William J. and Colman, Isabel L. and Coughlin, Jeff L. and Davies, Guy and Hirano, Teruyuki and Howard, Andrew W. and Isaacson, Howard (2019) The Curious Case of KOI 4: Confirming Kepler's First Exoplanet Detection. Astronomical Journal, 157 (5). Art. No. 192. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab0e8e.

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The discovery of thousands of planetary systems by Kepler has demonstrated that planets are ubiquitous. However, a major challenge has been the confirmation of Kepler planet candidates, many of which still await confirmation. One of the most enigmatic examples is KOI 4.01, Kepler's first discovered planet candidate detection (as KOI 1.01, 2.01, and 3.01 were known prior to launch). Here we present the confirmation and characterization of KOI 4.01 (now Kepler-1658), using a combination of asteroseismology and radial velocities. Kepler-1658 is a massive, evolved subgiant (M⋆ = 1.45 ± 0.06 M⊙, R⋆ = 2.89 ± 0.12 R⊙) hosting a massive (M_P = 5.88 ± 0.47 M_J, R_P = 1.07 ± 0.05 R_J) hot Jupiter that orbits every 3.85 days. Kepler-1658 joins a small population of evolved hosts with short-period (≤100 days) planets and is now the closest known planet in terms of orbital period to an evolved star. Because of its uniqueness and short orbital period, Kepler-1658 is a new benchmark system for testing tidal dissipation and hot Jupiter formation theories. Using all four years of the Kepler data, we constrain the orbital decay rate to be P ≤ −0.42 s yr^(−1), corresponding to a strong observational limit of Q⋆’ ≥ 4.826 × 10^3 for the tidal quality factor in evolved stars. With an effective temperature of T_(eff) ~ 6200 K, Kepler-1658 sits close to the spin–orbit misalignment boundary at ~6250 K, making it a prime target for follow-up observations to better constrain its obliquity and to provide insight into theories for hot Jupiter formation and migration.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Bieryla, Allyson0000-0001-6637-5401
Van Eylen, Vincent0000-0001-5542-8870
Bedding, Timothy R.0000-0001-5222-4661
Berger, Travis0000-0002-2580-3614
Buchhave, Lars A.0000-0003-1605-5666
Campante, Tiago L.0000-0002-4588-5389
Chaplin, William J.0000-0002-5714-8618
Coughlin, Jeff L.0000-0003-1634-9672
Davies, Guy0000-0002-4290-7351
Hirano, Teruyuki0000-0003-3618-7535
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 December 14; revised 2019 February 25; accepted 2019 March 1; published 2019 April 29. The authors thank Eric Gaidos, Josh Winn, Tom Barclay, Jennifer van Saders, Lauren Weiss, Erik Petigura, Benjamin J. Fulton, Cole Campbell Johnson, Sam Grunblatt, Jamie Tayar, Jessica Stasik, and Connor Auge for helpful discussions. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawai'ian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. A.C. acknowledges support by the National Science Foundation under the Graduate Research Fellowship Program. D.H. acknowledges support by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX14AB92G, NNX17AF76G, 80NSSC18K0362) and by the National Science Foundation (AST-1717000). D.W.L. acknowledges support from the Kepler mission under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cooperative Agreement (NNX13AABB58A) with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. T.L.C. acknowledges support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant No. 792848. T.H. acknowledges support by the Japan Society for Promotion of Science under KAKENHI grant No. JP16K17660. Facilities: Keck:I (HIRES) - KECK I Telescope, FLWO:1.5m (TRES) - Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory's 1.5 meter Telescope. Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013b), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), Pandas (McKinney 2010), SciPy (Jones et al. 2001).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship792848
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP16K17660
Subject Keywords:asteroseismology – planets and satellites: individual (KOI 4.01) – stars: individual (Kepler-1658) – techniques: photometric, radial velocities, spectroscopic
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190429-142124199
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ashley Chontos et al 2019 AJ 157 192
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95076
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Apr 2019 21:46
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:10

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