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A Strategy for LSST to Unveil a Population of Kilonovae without Gravitational-wave Triggers

Andreoni, Igor and Anand, Shreya and Bianco, Federica B. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Cowperthwaite, Philip S. and Coughlin, Michael W. and Drout, Maria and Golkhou, V. Zach and Kaplan, David L. and Mooley, Kunal P. and Pritchard, Tyler A. and Singer, Leo P. and Webb, Sara (2019) A Strategy for LSST to Unveil a Population of Kilonovae without Gravitational-wave Triggers. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 131 (1000). Art. No. 068004. ISSN 0004-6280. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190507-111646855

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Abstract

We present a cadence optimization strategy to unveil a large population of kilonovae using optical imaging alone. These transients are generated during binary neutron star and potentially neutron star–black hole mergers and are electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave signals detectable in nearby events with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and other interferometers that will be online in the near future. Discovering a large population of kilonovae will allow us to determine how heavy-element production varies with the intrinsic parameters of the merger and across cosmic time. The rate of binary neutron star mergers is still uncertain, but only few (≾ 15) events with associated kilonovae may be detectable per year within the horizon of next-generation ground-based interferometers. The rapid evolution (~days) at optical/infrared wavelengths, relatively low luminosity, and the low volumetric rate of kilonovae makes their discovery difficult, especially during blind surveys of the sky. We propose future large surveys to adopt a rolling cadence in which g-i observations are taken nightly for blocks of 10 consecutive nights. With the current baseline2018a cadence designed for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), l≾ 7.5 poorly sampled kilonovae are expected to be detected in both the Wide Fast Deep (WFD) and Deep Drilling Fields (DDF) surveys per year, under optimistic assumptions on their rate, duration, and luminosity. We estimate the proposed strategy to return up to ~272 GW170817-like kilonovae throughout the LSST WFD survey, discovered independently from gravitational-wave triggers.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/ab1531DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.03161arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Bianco, Federica B.0000-0003-1953-8727
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Cowperthwaite, Philip S.0000-0002-2478-6939
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Drout, Maria0000-0001-7081-0082
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Kaplan, David L.0000-0001-6295-2881
Mooley, Kunal P.0000-0002-2557-5180
Singer, Leo P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Webb, Sara0000-0003-2601-1472
Additional Information:© 2019. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Received 2019 February 1; accepted 2019 March 31; published 2019 May 6. Focus on Tools and Techniques for Time-domain Astronomy. We thank the anonymous referee for providing feedback that helped us in improving the quality of the paper. This work was developed partly within the TVS Science Collaboration and the author acknowledge the support of TVS in the preparation of this paper. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project between California Institute of Technology (USA), San Diego State University (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK), University of Sydney (Australia). P.S.C. is grateful for support provided by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant #HST-HF2-51404.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-1545949
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51404.001-A
NASANAS 5-26555
Subject Keywords:surveys – gravitational waves – (stars:) binaries: general – stars: neutron
Issue or Number:1000
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190507-111646855
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190507-111646855
Official Citation:Igor Andreoni et al 2019 PASP 131 068004
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95298
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 May 2019 22:20
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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