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Additive manufacturing of titanium dioxide for dielectric photonic crystals

Vyatskikh, Andrey and Ng, Ryan C. and Edwards, Bryce and Greer, Julia R. (2019) Additive manufacturing of titanium dioxide for dielectric photonic crystals. In: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics XII. Proceedings of SPIE. No.10930. Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) , Bellingham, WA, Art. No. 109300H.

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Fabrication of 3D dielectric photonic crystals in the visible and in the infrared range typically requires sub-micron structural features and high-refractive index materials. We developed a template-free additive manufacturing (AM) process based on direct laser writing (DLW) that can create complex 3D architectures out of titania (TiO_2) with ~100 nm resolution. In this process, we synthesize hybrid organic-inorganic materials that contain titanium clusters coordinated with acrylic ligands to prepare a photoresist that is amenable to two-photon lithography (TPL). We sculpt a pre-ceramic architecture using TPL and then pyrolyze in air at 900°C to remove the organic constituents to produce a replica of the original structure with ~70% reduced linear dimensions. Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy confirm the constituent solid to consist predominantly out of rutile titania. We demonstrate this process by fabricating titania woodpile structures with lateral dimensions of 70 × 70 μm and lateral periodicities between 1.0 and 1.3 μm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reveals passive tuning of the reflectance peak between 1.7 and 2.3 μm, which agrees with Plane Wave Expansion simulations. This titania AM process offers a promising pathway to efficiently fabricate complex 3D nano-architectures out of a high-index material for 3D dielectric photonic crystals in the visible and the infrared.

Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Vyatskikh, Andrey0000-0002-6917-6931
Ng, Ryan C.0000-0002-0527-9130
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Additional Information:© 2019 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). The authors are grateful for the support of JRG’s Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship and AV’s Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech Fellowship and NIH Biotechnology Leadership Pre-Doctoral Training Program support. The authors thank Professor George R. Rossman (Caltech) for his assistance with Raman spectroscopy and FTIR.
Group:Rosen Bioengineering Center, Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Vannevar Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
NIH Biotechnology Leadership Pre-Doctoral Training ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:additive manufacturing, pre-ceramic polymer, titanium dioxide, titania, photonic crystal
Series Name:Proceedings of SPIE
Issue or Number:10930
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190514-124438045
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Andrey Vyatskikh, Ryan C. Ng, Bryce Edwards, and Julia R. Greer "Additive manufacturing of titanium dioxide for dielectric photonic crystals", Proc. SPIE 10930, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics XII, 109300H (4 March 2019); doi: 10.1117/12.2507076;
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95494
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:14 May 2019 20:22
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:13

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