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Differing toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) in global cities

Li, Jing and Chen, Haoxuan and Li, Xinyue and Wang, Minfei and Zhang, Xiangyu and Cao, Junji and Shen, Fangxia and Wu, Yan and Xu, Siyu and Fan, Hanqing and Da, Guillaume and Huang, Ru-jin and Wang, Jing and Chan, Chak K. and De Jesus, Alma Lorelei and Morawska, Lidia and Yao, Maosheng (2019) Differing toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) in global cities. Atmospheric Environment, 212 . pp. 305-315. ISSN 1352-2310. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190521-105208155

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Abstract

Air quality is often assessed using particulate matter (PM) mass concentration without considering its toxicity, thus possibly leading to improper control policies or inadequate health protection. Here, we studied differences in oxidative potentials (OPs) of PM samples collected using automobile air conditioning (AC) filters from 19 global cities, including influences from microbial contents. Dithiothreitol (DTT) assay showed remarkable differences in the PM OPs among cities (p-values ≤ 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). For example, the normalized index of oxidant generation (NIOG) of PM samples in San Francisco (2.20 × 10^(−2), annual average PM_(10) = 16 μg/m^3) was found to be twice that in Beijing (1.14 × 10^(−2), annual average PM_(10) = 135 μg/m^3). Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay found that PM-borne endotoxin ranged from 12.16 EU/mg (Florianopolis, Brazil) to 2518.23 EU/mg (Chennai, India) among cities. Besides, culturing method and real-time qPCR revealed significant differences up to ∼100-fold in both bacterial and fungal levels among 19 cities. Spearman's correlation analysis implied that PM-borne microbes such as bacteria and fungi as well as metals could strongly influence the PM OP. As an example, our results in Xi'an, China further suggest that the PM_(2.5) OP evolves for a particular city over the time, which is attributable to both the urbanization and air pollution control measures. This work highlights the importance in optimizing the current air quality control measures by considering the toxicity factor and its microbial constituents.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.05.048DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Cao, Junji0000-0003-1000-7241
Wang, Jing0000-0003-2078-137X
Chan, Chak K.0000-0001-9687-8771
Morawska, Lidia0000-0002-0594-9683
Additional Information:© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. Received 24 October 2018, Revised 23 April 2019, Accepted 18 May 2019, Available online 21 May 2019. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Distinguished Young Scholars Fund Awarded to M. Yao (21725701), and the NSFC (Grants 91543126, 21611130103, 21477003, 41121004), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (grants 2016YFC0207102, 2015CB553401, and 2015DFG92040). We thank Piotr Grzybowsi for help with the sample collection. We also thank the “Gao Tingyao Scholarship for National Outstanding Young Award” to Jing Li from Shanghai Tongji Gao Tingyao Environmental Science & Technology Development Foundation. The authors declare no competing financial interests in association with this study. We declare that we do not have any conflicting interests with respect to the work reported here.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China21725701
National Natural Science Foundation of China91543126
National Natural Science Foundation of China21611130103
National Natural Science Foundation of China21477003
National Natural Science Foundation of China41121004
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)2016YFC0207102
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)2015CB553401
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)2015DFG92040
Shanghai Tongji Gao Tingyao Environmental Science & Technology Development FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:PM toxicity; Biologicals; Oxidative potential; Air quality
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190521-105208155
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190521-105208155
Official Citation:Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Xinyue Li, Minfei Wang, Xiangyu Zhang, Junji Cao, Fangxia Shen, Yan Wu, Siyu Xu, Hanqing Fan, Guillaume Da, Ru-jin Huang, Jing Wang, Chak K. Chan, Alma Lorelei De Jesus, Lidia Morawska, Maosheng Yao, Differing toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) in global cities, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 212, 2019, Pages 305-315, ISSN 1352-2310, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.05.048. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135223101930353X)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95641
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 May 2019 18:03
Last Modified:04 Jun 2019 23:06

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