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Abundances in Stars from the Red Giant Branch Tip to Near the Main-Sequence Turnoff in M71. III. Abundance Ratios

Ramírez, Solange V. and Cohen, Judith G. (2002) Abundances in Stars from the Red Giant Branch Tip to Near the Main-Sequence Turnoff in M71. III. Abundance Ratios. Astronomical Journal, 123 (6). pp. 3277-3297. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.1086/340354. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190522-130213833

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Abstract

We present abundance ratios for 23 elements with respect to Fe in a sample of stars with a wide range in luminosity, from luminous giants to stars near the turnoff in a globular cluster. Our sample of 25 stars in M71 includes 10 giant stars more luminous than the red horizontal branch (RHB), three HB stars, nine giant stars less luminous than the RHB, and three stars near the turnoff. The analyzed spectra, obtained with HIRES at the Keck Observatory, are of high dispersion (R = λ/Δλ = 35,000). We find that the neutron capture, the iron peak, and the α-element abundance ratios show no trend with T_(eff) and low scatter around the mean between the top of the RGB and near the main-sequence turnoff. The α-elements Mg, Ca, Si, and Ti are overabundant relative to Fe. The anticorrelation between O and Na abundances observed in other metal-poor globular clusters is detected in our sample and extends to the main sequence. A statistically significant correlation between Al and Na abundances is observed among the M71 stars in our sample, extending to M_V = +1.8, fainter than the luminosity of the RGB bump in M5. Lithium is varying, as expected, and Zr may be varying from star to star as well. M71 appears to have abundance ratios very similar to M5, whose bright giants were studied by Ivans et al., but seems to have a smaller amplitude of star-to-star variations at a given luminosity, as might be expected from its higher metallicity. Neither extremely O-poor, Na-rich stars nor extremely O-rich, Na-poor, stars such as are observed in M5 and in M13, are present in our sample of M71 stars. The results of our abundance analysis of 25 stars in M71 provide sufficient evidence of abundance variations at unexpectedly low luminosities to rule out the mixing scenario. Either alone or, even more powerfully, combined with other recent studies of C and N abundances in M71 stars, the existence of such abundance variations cannot be reproduced within the context of our current understanding of stellar evolution.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1086/340354DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0111572arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Cohen, Judith G.0000-0002-8039-4673
Additional Information:© 2002 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2001 July 5; accepted 2002 February 15. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The entire Keck/HIRES user communities owes a huge debt to Jerry Nelson, Gerry Smith, Steve Vogt, and many other people who have worked to make the Keck Telescope and HIRES a reality and to operate and maintain the Keck Observatory. We are grateful to the W. M. Keck Foundation for the vision to fund the construction of the W. M. Keck Observatory. The authors wish to extend special thanks to those of Hawaiian ancestry on whose sacred mountain we are privileged to be guests. Without their generous hospitality, none of the observations presented herein would have been possible. We are grateful to the National Science Foundation for partial support under grant AST-98 19614 to J. G. C. We thank Jason Prochaska and Andy McWilliam for providing their tables of hyperfine structure in digital form.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-9819614
Subject Keywords:globular clusters: general — globular clusters: individual (M71) — stars: abundances — stars: evolution
Issue or Number:6
DOI:10.1086/340354
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190522-130213833
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190522-130213833
Official Citation:Solange V. Ramírez and Judith G. Cohen 2002 AJ 123 3277
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95702
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 May 2019 21:38
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:14

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