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AGN Luminosity and Stellar Age: Two Missing Ingredients for AGN Unification as Seen with iPTF Supernovae

Villarroel, Beatriz and Nyholm, Anders and Karlsson, Torgny and Comerón, Sébastien and Korn, Andreas J. and Sollerman, Jesper and Zackrisson, Erik (2017) AGN Luminosity and Stellar Age: Two Missing Ingredients for AGN Unification as Seen with iPTF Supernovae. Astrophysical Journal, 837 (2). Art. No. 110. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa5d5a.

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Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are extremely powerful cosmic objects, driven by accretion of hot gas upon super-massive black holes. The zoo of AGN classes is divided into two major groups, with Type-1 AGNs displaying broad Balmer emission lines and Type-2 narrow ones. For a long time it was believed that a Type-2 AGN is a Type-1 AGN viewed through a dusty kiloparsec-sized torus, but an emerging body of observations suggests more than just the viewing angle matters. Here we report significant differences in supernova (SN) counts and classes in the first study to date of SNe near Type-1 and Type-2 AGN host galaxies, using data from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and Galaxy Zoo. We detect many more SNe in Type-2 AGN hosts (size of effect ~5.1σ) compared to Type-1 hosts, which shows that the two classes of AGN are located inside host galaxies with different properties. In addition, Type-1 and Type-2 AGNs that are dominated by star formation according to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colors m_(W1)−m_(W2) < 0.5 and are matched in 22 μm absolute magnitude differ by a factor of ten in L[O III] λ5007 luminosity, suggesting that when residing in similar types of host galaxies Type-1 AGNs are much more luminous. Our results demonstrate two more factors that play an important role in completing the current picture: the age of stellar populations and the AGN luminosity. This has immediate consequences for understanding the many AGN classes and galaxy evolution.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Zackrisson, Erik0000-0003-1096-2636
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 August 18; revised 2017 January 19; accepted 2017 January 29; published 2017 March 8. B.V. wishes to thank Kjell Lundgren for early discussions about the work. She also wishes to thank Martin Gaskell and Robert R.J. Antonucci and for many constructive and helpful comments, and finally to acknowledge A. Magnard, C. Franck, G. von Rivia, and J. Pianist for inspiring discussions. A.N. wishes to thank Ariel Goobar for useful suggestions. B.V. was funded and supported by the Center of Interdisciplinary Mathematics (Uppsala Universitet) and Erik and Märta Holmbergs donation from the Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapet. Supernova research at the Oskar Klein Centre is supported by the Swedish Research Council and by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory project is a scientific collaboration among the California Institute of Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, the Oskar Klein Centre, the Weizmann Institute of Science, the TANGO Program of the University System of Taiwan, and the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research also heavily relies on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Funding for SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, and the Max Planck Society.
Group:Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Uppsala UniversitetUNSPECIFIED
Kungliga Fysiografiska SällskapetUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active – galaxies: nuclei – supernovae: general – surveys
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190528-155748288
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Official Citation:Beatriz Villarroel et al 2017 ApJ 837 110
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95837
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 May 2019 22:00
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:16

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