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Human Gut Microbiota from Autism Spectrum Disorder Promote Behavioral Symptoms in Mice

Sharon, Gil and Cruz, Nikki Jamie and Kang, Dae-Wook and Gandal, Michael J. and Wang, Bo and Kim, Young-Mo and Zink, Erika M. and Casey, Cameron P. and Taylor, Bryn C. and Lane, Christianne J. and Bramer, Lisa M. and Isern, Nancy G. and Hoyt, David W. and Noecker, Cecilia and Sweredoski, Michael J. and Moradian, Annie and Borenstein, Elhanan and Jansson, Janet K. and Knight, Rob and Metz, Thomas O. and Lois, Carlos and Geschwind, Daniel H. and Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa and Mazmanian, Sarkis K. (2019) Human Gut Microbiota from Autism Spectrum Disorder Promote Behavioral Symptoms in Mice. Cell, 177 (6). pp. 1600-1618. ISSN 0092-8674. PMCID PMC6993574. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.05.004.

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests as alterations in complex human behaviors including social communication and stereotypies. In addition to genetic risks, the gut microbiome differs between typically developing (TD) and ASD individuals, though it remains unclear whether the microbiome contributes to symptoms. We transplanted gut microbiota from human donors with ASD or TD controls into germ-free mice and reveal that colonization with ASD microbiota is sufficient to induce hallmark autistic behaviors. The brains of mice colonized with ASD microbiota display alternative splicing of ASD-relevant genes. Microbiome and metabolome profiles of mice harboring human microbiota predict that specific bacterial taxa and their metabolites modulate ASD behaviors. Indeed, treatment of an ASD mouse model with candidate microbial metabolites improves behavioral abnormalities and modulates neuronal excitability in the brain. We propose that the gut microbiota regulates behaviors in mice via production of neuroactive metabolites, suggesting that gut-brain connections contribute to the pathophysiology of ASD.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Sharon, Gil0000-0002-4605-9943
Kang, Dae-Wook0000-0002-2585-1974
Bramer, Lisa M.0000-0002-8384-1926
Isern, Nancy G.0000-0001-9571-8864
Hoyt, David W.0000-0002-2857-719X
Noecker, Cecilia0000-0003-1417-2383
Sweredoski, Michael J.0000-0003-0878-3831
Moradian, Annie0000-0002-0407-2031
Borenstein, Elhanan0000-0003-3002-0945
Jansson, Janet K.0000-0002-5487-4315
Knight, Rob0000-0002-0975-9019
Metz, Thomas O.0000-0003-2896-3450
Lois, Carlos0000-0002-7305-2317
Geschwind, Daniel H.0000-0003-2896-3450
Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa0000-0001-6064-3524
Mazmanian, Sarkis K.0000-0003-2713-1513
Additional Information:© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Received 6 February 2018, Revised 11 February 2019, Accepted 30 April 2019, Available online 30 May 2019. The authors would like to thank Drs. H. Chu, G. Lenz, C. Schretter, and D. Dar, and members of the Mazmanian laboratory for critical discussions. We thank the staff at the Caltech Office of Laboratory Animal Resources. We also thank Y. Huang for hypD reference sequences. We thank Dr. J. Adams for critical review on the manuscript. We also thank Dr. J. Maldonado and M. Bennett for their support on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We thank G. Humphrey, J. DeRight Goldasich, T. Schwartz, R. Salido Benitez, and G. Ackermann for their support in shotgun sequencing. Metabolomics analyses were supported by the Microbiomes in Transition (MinT) Initiative as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at PNNL. Metabolomics measurements were performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL in Richland Washington. PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle for the DOE under contract DE-AC05-76RLO 1830. This work was supported by Autism Speaks Postdoctoral Fellowship in Translational Research 9718 and Human Frontiers Science Program Long-Term Fellowship 2012/65 (to G.S,), SFARI Bridge to Independence Award (to M.J.G), The San Diego Diversity Fellowship and the National Biomedical Computation Resource (to B.C.T). Funding includes grants from NIH (GM124312-01 to E.B., NS104925 to C.L., HD055784, MH100027 to D.H.G, and MH100556 to S.K.M.), Autism Research Institute, the Emch Foundation, the Brenen Hornstein Autism Research & Education Foundation (to D.W.K. and R.K.B.), Lynda and Blaine Fetter, the Simons Foundation, and the Heritage Medical Research Institute (to S.K.M.). Author Contributions: Conceptualization, G.S. and S.K.M.; Methodology, G.S., D.-W.K., M.J.G., B.W., Y.-M.K., N.G.I., M.S., A.M., D.W.H., T.O.M., R.K.-B., and S.K.M.; Formal Analysis, G.S., C.L., D.-W.K., M.J.G., Y.-M.K., C.P.C., B.C.T., L.M.B., N.G.I., B.C.T., M.J.S., D.W.H., C.N., and T.O.M.; Investigation, G.S., N.J.C., D.-W.K., M.J.G., B.W., Y.-M.K., C.P.C., N.G.I., M.J.S., A.M., D.W.H., and T.O.M.; Data Curation, G.S., D.-W.K., M.J.G., B.W., Y.-M.K., B.C.T., L.M.B., and D.W.H.; Visualization, G.S. and C.N.; Resources, D.-W.K. and R.K.,-B.; Supervision, E.B., J.K.J., R.K., T.O.M., C.L., D.H.G., R.K.-B., and S.K.M.; Funding Acquisition, E.B., R.K., J.K.J., T.O.M., C.L., D.H.G., R.K.-B., and S.K.M.; Writing – Original Draft, G.S. and S.K.M.; Writing – Review & Editing, all authors. Declaration of Interests: D.-W.K. and R.K.-B. have pending/approved patent applications related to the use of FMT and/or probiotics for various conditions including ASD. G.S. and S.K.M. have filed a pending patent application for the use of specific microbes and metabolites for various neurodevelopmental conditions. S.K.M is a co-founder of Axial Biotherapeutics and member of its scientific advisory board.
Group:Heritage Medical Research Institute, Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC05-76RLO1830
Autism Speaks9718
Human Frontier Science Program2012/65
San Diego Diversity FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
National Biomedical Computation ResourceUNSPECIFIED
Autism Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Emch FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Brenen Hornstein Autism Research & Education FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Lynda and Blaine FetterUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Heritage Medical Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:autism spectrum disorder; autism; gut microbiome; microbiota; gut-brain axis; metabolome; mouse model; bacterial metabolites
Issue or Number:6
PubMed Central ID:PMC6993574
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190530-084504199
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Gil Sharon, Nikki Jamie Cruz, Dae-Wook Kang, Michael J. Gandal, Bo Wang, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M. Zink, Cameron P. Casey, Bryn C. Taylor, Christianne J. Lane, Lisa M. Bramer, Nancy G. Isern, David W. Hoyt, Cecilia Noecker, Michael J. Sweredoski, Annie Moradian, Elhanan Borenstein, Janet K. Jansson, Rob Knight, Thomas O. Metz, Carlos Lois, Daniel H. Geschwind, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Sarkis K. Mazmanian, Human Gut Microbiota from Autism Spectrum Disorder Promote Behavioral Symptoms in Mice, Cell, Volume 177, Issue 6, 2019, Pages 1600-1618.e17, ISSN 0092-8674,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:95952
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 May 2019 16:03
Last Modified:24 Feb 2022 18:44

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