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Search for early gamma-ray production in supernovae located in dense circumstellar medium with the FERMILAT

Ackermann, M. and Arcavi, I. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. (2015) Search for early gamma-ray production in supernovae located in dense circumstellar medium with the FERMILAT. Astrophysical Journal, 807 (2). Art. 169. ISSN 0004-637X.

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Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are hypothesized to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV γ-rays and TeV neutrinos on a timescale of several months. We perform the first systematic search for γ-ray emission in Fermi Large Area Telescope data in the energy range from $100\;\mathrm{MeV}$ to $300\;\mathrm{GeV}$ from the ensemble of 147 SNe Type IIn exploding in a dense CSM. We search for a γ-ray excess at each SNe location in a one-year time window. In order to enhance a possible weak signal, we simultaneously study the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint-likelihood analysis in three different time windows (1 year, 6 months, and 3 months). For the most promising source of the sample, SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), we repeat the analysis with an extended time window lasting 4.5 years. We do not find a significant excess in γ-rays for any individual source nor for the combined sources and provide model-independent flux upper limits for both cases. In addition, we derive limits on the γ-ray luminosity and the ratio of γ-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio as a function of the index of the proton injection spectrum assuming a generic γ-ray production model. Furthermore, we present detailed flux predictions based on multi-wavelength observations and the corresponding flux upper limit at a 95% confidence level (CL) for the source SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf).

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Arcavi, I.0000-0001-7090-4898
Additional Information:© 2015. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 April 10. Accepted 2015 June 2. Published 2015 July 9. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K.A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Études Spatiales in France. This paper is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope as part of the Palomar Transient Factory project, a scientific collaboration between the California Institute of Technology, Columbia University, Las Cumbres Observatory, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, the University of Oxford, and the Weizmann Institute of Science. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. We are grateful for excellent staff assistance at the Palomar, Lick, and Keck Observatories. E.O.O. is the incumbent of the Arye Dissentshik career development chair and is grateful for support by grants from the Willner Family Leadership Institute Ilan Gluzman (Secaucus NJ), the Israeli Ministry of Science, the Israel Science Foundation, Minerva and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation. A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU/FP7 via ERC grant No. 307260, the Quantum Universe I-Core program by the Israeli Committee for Planning and Budgeting and the ISF, Minerva and ISF grants, WIS-UK "Making Connections", and Kimmel and ARCHES awards.
Group:Palomar Transient Factory
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190606-131743652
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96193
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:06 Jun 2019 21:58
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:20

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