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The Effect of Binarity on Circumstellar Disk Evolution

Barenfeld, Scott A. and Carpenter, John M. and Sargent, Anneila I. and Rizzuto, Aaron C. and Kraus, Adam L. and Meshkat, Tiffany and Akeson, Rachel L. and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Hinkley, Sasha (2019) The Effect of Binarity on Circumstellar Disk Evolution. Astrophysical Journal, 878 (1). Art. No. 45. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We present new results on how the presence of stellar companions affects disk evolution based on a study of the 5–11 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB Association. Of the 50 G0-M3 Upper Sco members with disks in our sample, only seven host a stellar companion within 2'' and brighter than K = 15, compared to 35 of 75 members without disks. This matches a trend seen in the 1–2 Myr old Taurus region, where systems with a stellar companion within 40 au have a lower fraction of infrared-identified disks than those without such companions, indicating shorter disk lifetimes in close multiple systems. However, the fractions of disk systems with a stellar companion within 40 au match in Upper Sco and Taurus. Additionally, we see no difference in the millimeter brightnesses of disks in Upper Sco systems with and without companions, in contrast to Taurus where systems with a companion within 300 au are significantly fainter than wider and single systems. These results suggest that the effects of stellar companions on disk lifetimes occur within the first 1–2 Myr of disk evolution, after which companions play little further role. By contrast, disks around single stars lose the millimeter-sized dust grains in their outer regions between ages of 1–2 Myr and 5–11 Myr. The end result of small dust disk sizes and faint millimeter luminosities is the same whether the disk has been truncated by a companion or has evolved through internal processes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Barenfeld, Scott A.0000-0001-5222-6851
Carpenter, John M.0000-0003-2251-0602
Sargent, Anneila I.0000-0002-4633-5098
Rizzuto, Aaron C.0000-0001-9982-1332
Kraus, Adam L.0000-0001-9811-568X
Meshkat, Tiffany0000-0001-6126-2467
Akeson, Rachel L.0000-0001-9674-1564
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Hinkley, Sasha0000-0001-8074-2562
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 August 30; revised 2019 April 28; accepted 2019 April 29; published 2019 June 12. We thank the referee for their useful comments, which improved this manuscript. We are grateful to Garreth Ruane, Ji Wang, and Henry Ngo for help reducing the NIRC2 imaging data. We thank Mike Ireland for use of his nonredundant aperture masking analysis code ( and Lynne Hillenbrand for valuable discussion regarding 2MASS J16075796-2040087. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. DGE1144469. S.A.B. acknowledges support from the NSF grant No. AST-1140063. J.M.C. acknowledges support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. 15XRP15_20140 issued through the Exoplanets Research Program. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This research has made use of the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which is operated by the W. M. Keck Observatory and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank Luca Rizzi for his aid with preparations for the NIRC2 observations and with telescope operation. We are grateful to the ALMA staff for their assistance in the data reduction. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Facilities: Keck:II (NIRC2) - , ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Gaia - , CTIO:2MASS - 2MASS Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Software: VIP, Sidney Code, R, Photutils.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:binaries: general – open clusters and associations: individual (Upper Scorpius OB1) – protoplanetary disks – stars: pre-main sequence
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190613-112836662
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Scott A. Barenfeld et al 2019 ApJ 878 45
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96389
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Jun 2019 18:35
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:21

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