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GROWTH on S190426c: Real-time Search for a Counterpart to the Probable Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger using an Automated Difference Imaging Pipeline for DECam

Goldstein, Daniel A. and Andreoni, Igor and Nugent, Peter E. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Coughlin, Michael W. and Anand, Shreya and Bloom, Joshua S. and Martínez-Palomera, Jorge and Zhang, Keming and Ahumada, Tomás and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Cooke, Jeff and De, Kishalay and Duev, Dmitry A. and Fremling, U. Christoffer and Gatkine, Pradip and Graham, Matthew and Ofek, Eran O. and Singer, Leo P. and Yan, Lin (2019) GROWTH on S190426c: Real-time Search for a Counterpart to the Probable Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger using an Automated Difference Imaging Pipeline for DECam. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 881 (1). Art. No. L7. ISSN 2041-8213. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190617-141803504

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Abstract

The discovery of a transient kilonova following the gravitational-wave (GW) event GW170817 highlighted the critical need for coordinated rapid and wide-field observations, inference, and follow-up across the electromagnetic spectrum. In the southern hemisphere, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco 4 m telescope is well suited to this task, as it is able to cover wide fields quickly while still achieving the depths required to find kilonovae like the one accompanying GW170817 to ~500 Mpc, the binary neutron star (NS) horizon distance for current generation of LIGO/Virgo collaboration (LVC) interferometers. Here, as part of the multi-facility follow-up by the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen collaboration, we describe the observations and automated data movement, data reduction, candidate discovery, and vetting pipeline of our target-of-opportunity DECam observations of S190426c, the first possible NS–black hole merger detected in GWs. Starting 7.5 hr after S190426c, over 11.28 hr of observations, we imaged an area of 525 deg^2 (r band) and 437 deg^2 (z band); this was 16.3% of the total original localization probability, and nearly all of the probability visible from the southern hemisphere. The machine-learning-based pipeline was optimized for fast turnaround, delivering transients for human vetting within 17 minutes, on average, of shutter closure. We reported nine promising counterpart candidates 2.5 hr before the end of our observations. One hour after our data-taking ended (roughly 20 hr after the announcement of S190426c), LVC released a refined skymap that reduced the probability coverage of our observations to 8.0%, demonstrating a critical need for localization updates on shorter (~hour) timescales. Our observations yielded no detection of a bona fide counterpart to m_z = 21.7 and m_r = 22.2 at the 5σ level of significance, consistent with the refined LVC positioning. We view these observations and rapid inferencing as an important real-world test for this novel end-to-end wide-field pipeline.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab3046DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.06980arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Goldstein, Daniel A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Martínez-Palomera, Jorge0000-0002-7395-4935
Zhang, Keming0000-0002-9870-5695
Ahumada, Tomás0000-0002-2184-6430
Cooke, Jeff0000-0001-5703-2108
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Fremling, U. Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Gatkine, Pradip0000-0002-1955-2230
Graham, Matthew0000-0002-3168-0139
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Singer, Leo P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Alternate Title:GROWTH on S190426c. II. Real-Time Search for a Counterpart to the Probable Neutron Star-Black Hole Merger using an Automated Difference Imaging Pipeline for DECam
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 May 16; revised 2019 July 2; accepted 2019 July 6; published 2019 August 5. D.A.G. and I.A. gratefully acknowledge Kathy Vivas, Steve Heathcote, and the NOAO staff for facilitating these target-of-opportunity observations. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. D.A.G. acknowledges support from Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51408.001-A. Support for Program number HST-HF2-51408.001-A is provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. P.E.N. acknowledges support from the DOE through DE-FOA-0001088, Analytical Modeling for Extreme-Scale Computing Environments. E.O.O. is grateful for support by a grant from the Israeli Ministry of Science, ISF, Minerva, BSF, BSF transformative program, and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation (grant No. 1829/12). M.W.C. is supported by the David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral Fellowship at the California Institute of Technology. J. S.B., J.M.-P., and K.Z. are partially supported by a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Data-Driven Discovery grant. J.C. is supported in part by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), CE170100004. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK), University of Sydney (Australia) and Swinburne University of Technology (Australia). This project used public archival data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the OzDES Membership Consortium, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, and Texas A&M University. Based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The Legacy Surveys consist of three individual and complementary projects: the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS; NOAO Proposal ID 2014B-0404; PIs: David Schlegel and Arjun Dey), the Beijing-Arizona Sky Survey (BASS; NOAO Proposal ID # 2015A-0801; PIs: Zhou Xu and Xiaohui Fan), and the Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS; NOAO Proposal ID # 2016A-0453; PI: Arjun Dey). DECaLS, BASS, and MzLS together include data obtained, respectively, at the Blanco telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO); the Bok telescope, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; and the Mayall telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, NOAO. The Legacy Surveys project is honored to be permitted to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du'ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain with particular significance to the Tohono O'odham Nation. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51408.001-A
NASANAS5-26555
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FOA-0001088
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Israel Science Foundation1829/12
MINERVA (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilCE170100004
NSFAST-1545949
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Texas A&M UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio da Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Argonne National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of California, Santa CruzUNSPECIFIED
University of CambridgeUNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y TecnológicasUNSPECIFIED
University College LondonUNSPECIFIED
DES-Brazil ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
ETH ZurichUNSPECIFIED
Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Institut de Física d'Altes EnergiesUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Ludwig-Maximilians Universität MünchenUNSPECIFIED
Excellence Cluster UniverseUNSPECIFIED
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
National Optical Astronomy ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
University of NottinghamUNSPECIFIED
OzDES Membership ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
University of PortsmouthUNSPECIFIED
Stanford Linear Accelerator CenterUNSPECIFIED
Stanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of SussexUNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gravitational waves – stars: black holes – stars: neutron – surveys
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190617-141803504
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190617-141803504
Official Citation:Daniel A. Goldstein et al 2019 ApJL 881 L7
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96478
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Jun 2019 21:41
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:22

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