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The SPIRITS sample of Luminous Infrared Transients: Uncovering Hidden Supernovae and Dusty Stellar Outbursts in Nearby Galaxies

Jencson, Jacob E. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Adams, Scott M. and Bond, Howard E. and De, Kishalay and Johansson, Joel and Karambelkar, Viraj and Lau, Ryan M. and Tinyanont, Samaporn and Ryder, Stuart D. and Cody, Ann Marie and Masci, Frank J. and Bally, John and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Castellón, Sergio and Fremling, Christoffer and Gehrz, Robert D. and Helou, George and Kilpatrick, Charles D. and Milne, Peter A. and Morrell, Nidia and Perley, Daniel A. and Phillips, Mark and Smith, Nathan and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Williams, Robert E. (2019) The SPIRITS sample of Luminous Infrared Transients: Uncovering Hidden Supernovae and Dusty Stellar Outbursts in Nearby Galaxies. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190617-152842446

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Abstract

We present a systematic study of the most luminous (M_(IR) [Vega magnitudes] brighter than −14) infrared (IR) transients discovered by the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) between 2014-2018 in nearby galaxies (D<35 Mpc). The sample consists of 9 events that span peak IR luminosities of M[4.5],peak between −14 and −18.2, show IR colors between 0.2<([3.6]−[4.5])<3.0, and fade on timescales between 55<t_(fade)<480 days. The two reddest events (A_V>12) show multiple, luminous IR outbursts over several years and have directly detected, massive progenitors in archival imaging. With analyses of extensive, multi-wavelength follow-up, we infer the following likely classifications: 5 obscured core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), 2 erupting massive stars, 1 massive stellar merger, and 1 possible electron capture SN. We define a control sample of all optically discovered transients recovered in SPIRITS galaxies and satisfying the same selection criteria. The control sample consists of 8 CCSNe and 1 Type Iax SN. We find that 7 of the 13 CCSNe in the SPIRITS sample have lower bounds on extinction of 2<A_V<8, suggesting that a large population of CCSNe is heavily obscured. We estimate a nominal fraction of CCSNe in nearby galaxies that are missed by optical surveys of 38.5^(+26.0)_(−21.9)% (90% confidence). This may resolve long-standing discrepancies between measurements of the CCSN rate and the cosmic star-formation rate.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/1901.00871arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Jencson, Jacob E.0000-0001-5754-4007
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Adams, Scott M.0000-0001-5855-5939
Bond, Howard E.0000-0003-1377-7145
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Johansson, Joel0000-0001-5975-290X
Tinyanont, Samaporn0000-0002-1481-4676
Ryder, Stuart D.0000-0003-4501-8100
Cody, Ann Marie0000-0002-3656-6706
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Bally, John0000-0001-8135-6612
Blagorodnova, Nadia0000-0003-0901-1606
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Gehrz, Robert D.0000-0003-1319-4089
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Kilpatrick, Charles D.0000-0002-5740-7747
Milne, Peter A.0000-0002-0370-157X
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Additional Information:We thank C. Contreras and the staff of Las Campanas Observatory for help with conducting observations and data reduction. We also thank K. Mooley, D. Dong, M. Anderson, M. Eastwood, and A. Horesh for valuable discussions and help with VLA data reduction. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469. HEB acknowledges that support for HST Program numbers GO-13935, GO-14258, and AR-15005 was provided by NASA through grants from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. RDG was supported by NASA and the United States Air Force. This work is part of the research programme VENI, with project number 016.192.277, which is (partly) financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This work is based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes at STScI, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (acquired through the Gemini Observatory Archive* and processed using the Gemini IRAF package, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). UKIRT is owned by the University of Hawaii (UH) and operated by the UH Institute for Astronomy; operations are enabled through the cooperation of the East Asian Observatory. When the data reported here were acquired, UKIRT was supported by NASA and operated under an agreement among the University of Hawaii, the University of Arizona, and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center; operations were enabled through the cooperation of the East Asian Observatory. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory acquired through the Gemini Observatory Archive and processed using the Gemini IRAF package, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Facilities: Spitzer (IRAC), HST (WFPC2, WFC3), Swift (UVOT), Hale (WIRC), PO:1.5m (SEDM), Keck:I (LRIS, MOSFIRE), Keck:II (NIRES), OANSPM:HJT (RATIR), UKIRT (WFCAM), Gemini:Gillett (GNIRS), Gemini:South (FLAMINGOS-2), EVLA, ATCA, AMI
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
NASAGO-13935
NASAGO-14258
NASAAR-15005
NASANAS5-26555
U.S. Air ForceUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:infrared: general — stars: massive — dust, extinction — supernovae: general — supernovae: individual (SPIRITS 14buu, SPIRITS 15c, SPIRITS 15ud, SPIRITS 16ix, SPIRITS 16tn, SPIRITS 17lb, SN 2014bi, SN 2014df, ASASSN-14ha, SN 2014dt, SN 2016C, SN 2016bau, SN 2016bkv, SN 2016cok, SN 2017eaw)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190617-152842446
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190617-152842446
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96484
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Jun 2019 22:47
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:22

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