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Host Galaxies of Type Ic and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Implication for Jet Production

Modjaz, Maryam and Bianco, Federica B. and Siwek, Magdalena and Huang, Shan and Perley, Daniel A. and Fierroz, David and Liu, Yu-Qian and Arcavi, Iair and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Cenko, S. Bradley and Kasliwal, Mansi and Kulkarni, Shri and Schulze, Steve and Taggart, Kirsty and Zheng, WeiKang (2020) Host Galaxies of Type Ic and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Implication for Jet Production. Astrophysical Journal, 892 (2). Art. No. 153. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab4185.

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Unlike ordinary supernovae (SNe), some of which are hydrogen and helium deficient (called Type Ic SNe), broad-lined Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic-bl) are very energetic events, and only SNe Ic-bl are coincident with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Understanding the progenitors of SN Ic-bl explosions versus those of their SN Ic cousins is key to understanding the SN–GRB relationship and jet production in massive stars. Here we present the largest existing set of host galaxy spectra of 28 SNe Ic and 14 SNe Ic-bl, all discovered by the same galaxy-untargeted survey, namely, the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We carefully measure their gas-phase metallicities, stellar masses (M*), and star formation rates (SFRs). We further reanalyze the hosts of 10 literature SN–GRBs using the same methods and compare them to our PTF SN hosts with the goal of constraining their progenitors from their local environments. We find that the metallicities, SFRs, and M * values of our PTF SN Ic-bl hosts are statistically comparable to those of SN–GRBs but significantly lower than those of the PTF SNe Ic. The mass–metallicity relations as defined by the SNe Ic-bl and SN–GRBs are not significantly different from the same relations as defined by Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, contradicting claims by earlier works. Our findings point toward low metallicity as a crucial ingredient for SN Ic-bl and SN–GRB production since we are able to break the degeneracy between high SFR and low metallicity. We suggest that the PTF SNe Ic-bl may have produced jets that were choked inside the star or were able to break out of the star as unseen low-luminosity or off-axis GRBs.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Modjaz, Maryam0000-0001-7132-0333
Bianco, Federica B.0000-0003-1953-8727
Siwek, Magdalena0000-0002-1530-9778
Huang, Shan0000-0001-5575-4510
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Fierroz, David0000-0003-1660-2332
Liu, Yu-Qian0000-0002-6052-1348
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Blagorodnova, Nadia0000-0003-0901-1606
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Kasliwal, Mansi0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, Shri0000-0001-5390-8563
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Zheng, WeiKang0000-0002-2636-6508
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 November 28; revised 2019 August 18; accepted 2019 September 3; published 2020 April 7. We are grateful to Andrew MacFadyen, Brian Metzger, and Patrick Kelly for useful discussions and comments. We kindly thank S. Ben-Ami, T. G. Brink, K. I. Clubb, O. D. Fox, M. L. Graham, A. A. Miller, I. Shivvers, J. M. Silverman, and O. Yaron for co-observing at Keck and C. Ott for being the PI of some proposals submitted before 2015 September and for co-observing at Keck on 2014 November 21. M.M. and the SNYU group are supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER award AST-1352405, by NSF award AST-1413260, and by a Humboldt Faculty Fellowship. Y.-Q.L. was supported in part by an NYU GSAS Dean's Dissertation Fellowship. Support for I.A. was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the Einstein Fellowship Program, grant PF6-170148. A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the Quantum universe I-Core program, the ISF, the BSF Transformative program, and a Kimmel award. Support for A.V.F.'s research group has been provided by the TABASGO Foundation, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (UC Berkeley). These results are based in part on observations obtained at the 200-inch Hale telescope, Palomar Observatory, as part of a collaborative agreement between Caltech, JPL, and Cornell University. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Observations with the Gemini Observatory were conducted through proposals GN-2011A-Q-93 and GS-2011A-C-5 (PI Modjaz) and processed using the Gemini IRAF package. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). This research has made use of the GHostS database (, which is partly funded by Spitzer/NASA grant RSA agreement No. 1287913. Furthermore, we used NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services (ADS) and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. This material is based on work supported by AURA through the NSF under AURA Cooperative Agreement AST-0132798 as amended. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS website is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration, including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis of the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. Facilities: GALEX - Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, Gemini:Gillett - , Gemini:South - , Palomar:Hale - , Keck:I (LRIS) - , Keck:II (DEIMOS) - , SDSS. -
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
New York University (NYU)UNSPECIFIED
NASA Einstein FellowshipPF6-170148
European Research Council (ERC)725161
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: abundances – galaxies: star formation – gamma-ray burst: general – supernovae: general
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190619-135405713
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Maryam Modjaz et al 2020 ApJ 892 153
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96570
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Jun 2019 21:25
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:21

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