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Host Galaxies of Type Ic and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Implication for Jet Production

Modjaz, Maryam and Bianco, Federica B. and Siwek, Magdalena and Huang, Shan and Perley, Daniel A. and Fierroz, David and Liu, Yu-Qian and Arcavi, Iair and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Cenko, S. Bradley and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Kasliwal, Mansi and Kulkarni, Shri and Schulze, Steve and Taggart, Kirsty and Zheng, WeiKang (2019) Host Galaxies of Type Ic and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Implication for Jet Production. . (Unpublished)

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Unlike the ordinary supernovae (SNe) some of which are hydrogen and helium deficient (called Type Ic SNe), broad-lined Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic-bl) are very energetic events, and all SNe coincident with bona fide long duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are of Type Ic-bl. Understanding the progenitors and the mechanism driving SN Ic-bl explosions vs those of their SNe Ic cousins is key to understanding the SN-GRB relationship and jet production in massive stars. Here we present the largest set of host-galaxy spectra of 28 SNe Ic and 14 SN Ic-bl, all discovered before 2013 by the same untargeted survey, namely the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We carefully measure their gas-phase metallicities, stellar masses (M*s) and star-formation rates (SFRs) by taking into account recent progress in the metallicity field and propagating uncertainties correctly. We further re-analyze the hosts of 10 literature SN-GRBs using the same methods and compare them to our PTF SN hosts with the goal of constraining their progenitors from their local environments by conducting a thorough statistical comparison, including upper limits. We find that the metallicities, SFRs and M*s of our PTF SN Ic-bl hosts are statistically comparable to those of SN-GRBs, but significantly lower than those of the PTF SNe Ic. The mass-metallicity relations as defined by the SNe Ic-bl and SN-GRBs are not significantly different from the same relations as defined by the SDSS galaxies, in contrast to claims by earlier works. Our findings point towards low metallicity as a crucial ingredient for SN Ic-bl and SN-GRB production since we are able to break the degeneracy between high SFR and low metallicity. We suggest that the PTF SNe Ic-bl may have produced jets that were choked inside the star or were able break out of the star as unseen low-luminosity or off-axis GRBs.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bianco, Federica B.0000-0003-1953-8727
Siwek, Magdalena0000-0002-1530-9778
Huang, Shan0000-0001-5575-4510
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Fierroz, David0000-0003-1660-2332
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Blagorodnova, Nadia0000-0003-0901-1606
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Kasliwal, Mansi0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, Shri0000-0001-5390-8563
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Zheng, WeiKang0000-0002-2636-6508
Additional Information:We are grateful to Andrew MacFadyen and Brian Metzger for useful discussions. We kindly thank S. Ben-Ami, T. G. Brink, K. I. Clubb, O. D. Fox , M. L. Graham, A. A. Miller, I. Shivvers, J. Silverman and O. Yaron for coobserving at Keck and C. Ott for PI'ing some proposals submitted before September 2015 and for co-observing at Keck on 2014-11-21. M.M. and the SNYU group are supported by the NSF CAREER award AST-1352405, by the NSF award AST-1413260 and by a Humboldt Faculty Fellowship.Y.-Q. L. was supported in part by NYU GSAS Dean's Dissertation Fellowship. Support for I.A. was provided by NASA through the Einstein Fellowship Program, grant PF6-170148. A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the Quantum Universe I-Core program, the ISF, the BSF Transformative program and by a Kimmel award. Furthermore, this research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services (ADS) and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Gemini Observatory Telescopes (North and South) proposal IDs: GN-2011A-Q-93 and GS-2011A-C-5, PI: Modjaz. which are based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (processed using the Gemini IRAF package), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). This research has made use of the GHostS database (, which is partly funded by Spitzer/NASA grant RSA Agreement No. 1287913. This material is based upon work supported by AURA through the National Science Foundation under AURA Cooperative Agreement AST 0132798 as amended. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatario Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis of the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. These results are based in part on observations obtained at the Hale Telescope, Palomar Observatory, as part of a collaborative agreement between Caltech, JPL and Cornell University. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis of the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. GALEX, Gemini:Gillett, Gemini:South, Hale, Keck:I (LRIS), Keck:II (DEIMOS), Sloan.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
New York University (NYU)UNSPECIFIED
NASA Einstein FellowshipPF6-170148
European Research Council (ERC)725161
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae - galaxies: abundances
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190619-135405713
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96570
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Jun 2019 21:25
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:23

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