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Invalidity of the Standard Locality Condition for Hidden-Variable Models of Bohm-EPR Experiments

Beck, James L. (2019) Invalidity of the Standard Locality Condition for Hidden-Variable Models of Bohm-EPR Experiments. California Institute of Technology . (Unpublished)

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John Bell and others used a locality condition to establish inequalities that they believe must be satisfied by any local hidden-variable model for the spin probability distribution for two entangled particles in a Bohm-EPR experiment. We show that this condition is invalid because it contradicts the product rule of probability theory for any model that exhibits the expected property of perfect correlation. This breaks the connection between Bell inequalities and the existence of any local hidden-variable model of interest. As already known, these inequalities give necessary conditions for the existence of third/fourth-order joint probability distributions for the spin outcomes from three/four separate Bohm-EPR experimental set-ups that are consistent with the second-order joint spin distributions for each experiment after marginalization. If a Bell inequality is violated, as quantum mechanics theory predicts and experiments show can happen, then at least one third-order joint probability is negative. However, this does not imply anything about the existence of local hidden-variable models for the second-order joint probability distributions for the spin outcomes of a single experiment. The locality condition does seem reasonable under the widely-applied frequentist interpretation of the spin probability distributions that views them as real properties of a random process that are manifested through their relative frequency of occurrence, which gives conditioning in the probabilities for the spin outcomes a causal role. In contrast, under the Bayesian interpretation of probability, probabilistic conditioning on one particle's spin outcome in the product rule is viewed as information to make probabilistic predictions of the other particle's spin outcome. There is nothing causal and so no reason to develop a locality condition.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Subject Keywords:Bohm-EPR spin experiment, local hidden-variable model, factorizability, Bell inequalities, quantum entanglement, Bayesian and frequentist probabilities
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190624-041159024
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96646
Deposited By: James Beck
Deposited On:28 Jun 2019 14:51
Last Modified:28 Jun 2019 14:51

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