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Additive Manufacturing of 3D-Architected Multifunctional Metal Oxides

Yee, Daryl W. and Lifson, Max L. and Edwards, Bryce W. and Greer, Julia R. (2019) Additive Manufacturing of 3D-Architected Multifunctional Metal Oxides. Advanced Materials, 31 (33). Art. No. 1901345. ISSN 0935-9648. PMCID PMC8063598. doi:10.1002/adma.201901345.

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Additive manufacturing (AM) of complex three‐dimensional (3D) metal oxides at the micro‐ and nanoscales has attracted considerable attention in recent years. State‐of‐the‐art techniques that use slurry‐based or organic–inorganic photoresins are often hampered by challenges in resin preparation and synthesis, and/or by the limited resolution of patterned features. A facile process for fabricating 3D‐architected metal oxides via the use of an aqueous metal‐ion‐containing photoresin is presented. The efficacy of this process, which is termed photopolymer complex synthesis, is demonstrated by creating nanoarchitected zinc oxide (ZnO) architectures with feature sizes of 250 nm, by first patterning a zinc‐ion‐containing aqueous photoresin using two‐photon lithography and subsequently calcining them at 500 ºC. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals their microstructure to be nanocrystalline ZnO with grain sizes of 5.1 ± 1.6 nm. In situ compression experiments conducted in a scanning electron microscope show an emergent electromechanical response: a 200 nm mechanical compression of an architected ZnO structure results in a voltage drop of 0.52 mV. This photopolymer complex synthesis provides a pathway to easily create arbitrarily shaped 3D metal oxides that could enable previously impossible devices and smart materials.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Yee, Daryl W.0000-0002-4114-6167
Lifson, Max L.0000-0002-0382-182X
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Alternate Title:Additive Manufacturing of 3D Architected Multifunctional Metal Oxides
Additional Information:© 2019 WILEY‐VCH. Issue Online: 13 August 2019; Version of Record online: 24 June 2019; Manuscript revised: 07 June 2019; Manuscript received: 27 February 2019. M.L.L. and D.W.Y. contributed equally to this work. The authors would like to thank the following people: J. H. Kang and the Davis lab at Caltech for performing TGA analysis, M. T. Johnson and the Faber lab at Caltech for assistance with our preliminary thermal process, R. A. Gallivan for her assistance with the electromechanical experiments and thoughtful discussions, C. M. Garland for her assistance with TEM imaging, and A. Vyatskikh for helpful discussions. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Institutes of Health (Grant No. 1R01CA194533), the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Grant No. CG2014), and the U.S. Department of Defense through J.R.G.'s Vannevar‐Bush Fellowship. The authors would also like to acknowledge the support granted by the National Institutes of Health Biotechnology Leadership Training Program (Grant No. T32GM112592). M.L.L., D.W.Y., and J.R.G. conceived and designed the experiments; D.W.Y. developed the polymer chemistry and fabricated the microstructures using two‐photon lithography; D.W.Y. and M.L.L. developed the heating profile and performed SEM analyses; D.W.Y. performed the EDS data collection and analysis. M.L.L. performed the XRD and TEM analyses; M.L.L. built the electromechanical set‐up and performed and analyzed the in situ open circuit voltage response electromechanical measurements. B.W.E. performed and analyzed the in situ mechanical compression experiments. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyCG2014
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NIH Predoctoral FellowshipT32GM112592
Subject Keywords:3D printing, electromechanics, metal oxides, two-photon lithography, zinc oxide
Issue or Number:33
PubMed Central ID:PMC8063598
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190625-161755810
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Yee, D. W., Lifson, M. L., Edwards, B. W., Greer, J. R., Additive Manufacturing of 3D‐Architected Multifunctional Metal Oxides. Adv. Mater. 2019, 31, 1901345.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96710
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:26 Jun 2019 14:33
Last Modified:09 Feb 2022 20:33

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