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Structural Color 3D Printing By Shrinking Photonic Crystals

Liu, Yejing and Wang, Hao and Ho, Jinfa and Ng, Ryan C. and Ng, Ray J. H. and Hall-Chen, Valerian H. and Koay, Eleen H. H. and Dong, Zhaogang and Liu, Hailong and Qiu, Cheng-Wei and Greer, Julia R. and Yang, Joel K. W. (2019) Structural Color 3D Printing By Shrinking Photonic Crystals. . (Unpublished)

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The rings, spots and stripes found on some butterflies, Pachyrhynchus weevils, and many chameleons are notable examples of natural organisms employing photonic crystals to produce colorful patterns. Despite advances in nanotechnology, we still lack the ability to print arbitrary colors and shapes in all three dimensions at this microscopic length scale. Commercial nanoscale 3D printers based on two-photon polymerization are incapable of patterning photonic crystal structures with the requisite ~300 nm lattice constant to achieve photonic stopbands/ bandgaps in the visible spectrum and generate colors. Here, we introduce a means to produce 3D-printed photonic crystals with a 5x reduction in lattice constants (periodicity as small as 280 nm), achieving sub-100-nm features with a full range of colors. The reliability of this process enables us to engineer the bandstructures of woodpile photonic crystals that match experiments, showing that observed colors can be attributed to either slow light modes or stopbands. With these lattice structures as 3D color volumetric elements (voxels), we printed 3D microscopic scale objects, including the first multi-color microscopic model of the Eiffel Tower measuring only 39-microns tall with a color pixel size of 1.45 microns. The technology to print 3D structures in color at the microscopic scale promises the direct patterning and integration of spectrally selective devices, such as photonic crystal-based color filters, onto free-form optical elements and curved surfaces.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ng, Ryan C.0000-0002-0527-9130
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Additional Information:We acknowledge funding support from the National Research Foundation grant award No. NRF-CRP001-021, A*STAR Young Investigatorship (Grant 0926030138), SERC (Grant 092154099) and SUTD Digital Manufacturing and Design (DManD) Center grant RGDM1830303. We thank Robert Edward Simpson, Weiling Dong and Tian Li for technical support with the temperature-controlled heating stage.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Research Foundation (Singapore)CRP001-021
Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)0926030138
Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC)092154099
Singapore University of Technology and DesignRGDM1830303
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190626-134011804
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96744
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jun 2019 20:49
Last Modified:26 Jun 2019 20:49

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