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Distributed Load-Side Control: Coping with Variation of Renewable Generations

Wang, Zhaojian and Mei, Shengwei and Liu, Feng and Low, Steven H. and Yang, Peng (2019) Distributed Load-Side Control: Coping with Variation of Renewable Generations. Automatica, 109 . Art. No. 108556. ISSN 0005-1098.

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This paper addresses the distributed frequency control problem in a multi-area power system taking into account of unknown time-varying power imbalance. Particularly, fast controllable loads are utilized to restore system frequency under changing power imbalance in an optimal manner. The imbalanced power causing frequency deviation is decomposed into three parts: a known constant part, an unknown low-frequency variation and a high-frequency residual. The known steady part is usually the prediction of power imbalance. The variation may result from the fluctuation of renewable resources, electric vehicle charging, etc., which is usually unknown to operators. The high-frequency residual is also unknown and treated as an external disturbance. Correspondingly, in this paper, we resolve the following three problems in different timescales: (1) allocate the steady part of power imbalance economically; (2) mitigate the effect of unknown low-frequency power variation locally; (3) attenuate unknown high-frequency disturbances. To this end, a distributed controller combining consensus method with adaptive internal model control is proposed. We first prove that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and converges to the optimal solution of an optimization problem if the external disturbance is not included. We then prove that the power variation can be mitigated accurately. Furthermore, we show that the closed-loop system is robust against both parameter uncertainty and external disturbances. The New England system is used to verify the efficacy of our design.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wang, Zhaojian0000-0002-4998-6339
Mei, Shengwei0000-0002-2757-5977
Liu, Feng0000-0003-2279-2558
Low, Steven H.0000-0001-6476-3048
Additional Information:© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. Received 23 March 2018, Revised 11 July 2019, Accepted 8 August 2019, Available online 30 August 2019. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51677100, U1766206, No. 51621065), the US National Science Foundation through grants CCF 1637598, ECCS 1619352, CPS 1739355, and ARPA-E, United States through grant DE-AR0000699. The material in this paper was not presented at any conference. This paper was recommended for publication in revised form by Associate Editor Antonella Ferrara under the direction of Editor Thomas Parisini.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China51677100
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaU1766206
National Natural Science Foundation of China51621065
Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)DE-AR0000699
Subject Keywords:Distributed control, frequency regulation, internal model control, load-side control, renewable generation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190627-102755990
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Zhaojian Wang, Shengwei Mei, Feng Liu, Steven H. Low, Peng Yang, Distributed load-side control: Coping with variation of renewable generations, Automatica, Volume 109, 2019, 108556, ISSN 0005-1098, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96781
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Jun 2019 18:17
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:25

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