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Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

Abergel, A. and Bock, J. J. and Doré, O. and Helou, G. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Prézeau, G. and Rocha, G. and Seiffert, M. D. and Chary, R.-R. and McGehee, P. and Paladini, R. and Rusholme, B. and Crill, B. P. (2014) Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 571 . Art. No. A11. ISSN 0004-6361. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-102824126

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Abstract

This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 353, 545, and 857 GHz, and IRAS 100 μm data. Using a modified blackbody fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353–3000 GHz range. This model is a good representation of the IRAS and Planck data at 5′ between 353 and 3000 GHz (850 and 100 μm). It shows variations of the order of 30% compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, down to an angular resolution of 5′, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions where the dust temperature varies strongly at small scales in response to dust evolution, extinction, and/or local production of heating photons. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, τ_(353)/N_H, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T_(obs), that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at H I column densities lower than 10^(20) cm^(-2) that could be the signature of dust in the warm ionized medium. In the diffuse ISM at high Galactic latitude, we report an anticorrelation between τ_(353)/N_H and T_(obs) while the dust specific luminosity, i.e., the total dust emission integrated over frequency (the radiance) per hydrogen atom, stays about constant, confirming one of the Planck Early Results obtained on selected fields. This effect is compatible with the view that, in the diffuse ISM, T_(obs) responds to spatial variations of the dust opacity, due to variations of dust properties, in addition to (small) variations of the radiation field strength. The implication is that in the diffuse high-latitude ISM τ_(353) is not as reliable a tracer of dust column density as we conclude it is in molecular clouds where the correlation of τ_(353) with dust extinction estimated using colour excess measurements on stars is strong. To estimate Galactic E(B− V) in extragalactic fields at high latitude we develop a new method based on the thermal dust radiance, instead of the dust optical depth, calibrated to E(B − V) using reddening measurements of quasars deduced from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201323195DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1312.1300arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Bock, J. J.0000-0002-5710-5212
Doré, O.0000-0002-5009-7563
Helou, G.0000-0003-3367-3415
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Chary, R.-R.0000-0001-7583-0621
McGehee, P.0000-0003-0948-6716
Paladini, R.0000-0002-5158-243X
Rusholme, B.0000-0001-7648-4142
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
Additional Information:© 2014 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 4 December 2013; Accepted 4 September 2014; Published online 29 October 2014. The development of Planck has been supported by: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MICINN, JA and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, including the technical or scientific activities in which they have been involved, can be found at http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=planck&page=Planck_Collaboration. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement No. 267934. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbuk agakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS web site is http://www.sdss.org/. The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, University of Cambridge, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. Some of the results in this paper have been derived using the HEALPix package.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
NASAUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO) UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Spanish Supercomputing Network (RES)UNSPECIFIED
Finnish Ministry of Employment and the EconomyUNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
DTU Space (Denmark)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education and Research (Switzerland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES) UNSPECIFIED
Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)267934
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:methods: data analysis – ISM: general – dust, extinction – infrared: ISM – submillimeter: ISM – opacity
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-102824126
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-102824126
Official Citation: Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission. Planck Collaboration, A. Abergel, et. al. A&A, 571 (2014) A11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201323195
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96859
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Jul 2019 18:50
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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