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Planck intermediate results. XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

Abergel, A. and Doré, O. and Helou, G. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Rocha, G. and Seiffert, M. D. and Rusholme, B. and Crill, B. P. (2014) Planck intermediate results. XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 566 . Art. No. A55. ISSN 0004-6361. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-104222513

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Abstract

The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area of 7500 deg^2 centred on the southern Galactic pole. We present a general methodology to study the dust-Hi correlation over the sky, including simulations to quantify uncertainties. Our analysis yields four specific results. (1) We map the temperature, submillimetre emissivity, and opacity of the dust per H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10^(-27) cm^2 H^(-1) × (ν/ 353 GHz)^(1.53 ± 0.03) for 100 ≤ ν ≤ 353 GHz. This is a reference value to estimate hydrogen column densities from dust emission at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. (2) We map the spectral index βmm of dust emission at millimetre wavelengths (defined here as ν ≤ 353 GHz), and find it to be remarkably constant at β_(mm) = 1.51 ± 0.13. We compare it with the far infrared spectral index β_(FIR) derived from greybody fits at higher frequencies, and find a systematic difference, β_(mm) – β_(FIR) = − 0.15, which suggests that the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) flattens at ν ≤ 353 GHz. (3) We present spectral fits of the microwave emission correlated with Hi from 23 to 353 GHz, which separate dust and anomalous microwave emission (AME). We show that the flattening of the dust SED can be accounted for with an additional component with a blackbody spectrum. This additional component, which accounts for (26 ± 6)% of the dust emission at 100 GHz, could represent magnetic dipole emission. Alternatively, it could account for an increasing contribution of carbon dust, or a flattening of the emissivity of amorphous silicates, at millimetre wavelengths. These interpretations make different predictions for the dust polarization SED. (4) We analyse the residuals of the dust-Hi correlation. We identify a Galactic contribution to these residuals, which we model with variations of the dust emissivity on angular scales smaller than that of our correlation analysis. This model of the residuals is used to quantify uncertainties of the CIB power spectrum in a companion Planck paper.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201323270DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1312.5446arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Doré, O.0000-0002-5009-7563
Helou, G.0000-0003-3367-3415
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Rusholme, B.0000-0001-7648-4142
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
Additional Information:© 2014 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 18 December 2013; Accepted 29 January 2014; Published online 11 June 2014. The development of Planck has been supported by: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MICINN, JA and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, including the technical or scientific activities in which they have been involved, can be found at http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=planck&page=Planck_Collaboration. The Parkes Radio Telescope is part of the Australia Telescope, which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement n° 267934.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
NASAUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO) UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Spanish Supercomputing Network (RES)UNSPECIFIED
Finnish Ministry of Employment and the EconomyUNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
DTU Space (Denmark)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education and Research (Switzerland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES) UNSPECIFIED
Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)267934
Subject Keywords:dust, extinction – submillimeter: ISM – local insterstellar matter – infrared: diffuse background – cosmic background radiation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-104222513
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-104222513
Official Citation:Planck intermediate results - XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies. Planck Collaboration, A. Abergel, et. al. A&A, 566 (2014) A55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201323270
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96860
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Jul 2019 18:52
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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