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Planck intermediate results. XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster

Ade, P. A. R. and Crill, B. P. and Doré, O. and Helou, G. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Pearson, T. J. and Rocha, G. and Rusholme, B. (2016) Planck intermediate results. XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 596 . Art. No. A101. ISSN 0004-6361. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-135500084

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Abstract

The Virgo cluster is the largest Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) source in the sky, both in terms of angular size and total integrated flux. Planck’s wide angular scale and frequency coverage, together with its high sensitivity, enable a detailed study of this big object through the SZ effect. Virgo is well resolved by Planck, showing an elongated structure that correlates well with the morphology observed from X-rays, but extends beyond the observed X-ray signal. We find good agreement between the SZ signal (or Compton parameter, yc) observed by Planck and the expected signal inferred from X-ray observations and simple analytical models. Owing to its proximity to us, the gas beyond the virial radius in Virgo can be studied with unprecedented sensitivity by integrating the SZ signal over tens of square degrees. We study the signal in the outskirts of Virgo and compare it with analytical models and a constrained simulation of the environment of Virgo. Planck data suggest that significant amounts of low-density plasma surround Virgo, out to twice the virial radius. We find the SZ signal in the outskirts of Virgo to be consistent with a simple model that extrapolates the inferred pressure at lower radii, while assuming that the temperature stays in the keV range beyond the virial radius. The observed signal is also consistent with simulations and points to a shallow pressure profile in the outskirts of the cluster. This reservoir of gas at large radii can be linked with the hottest phase of the elusivewarm/hot intergalactic medium. Taking the lack of symmetry of Virgo into account, we find that a prolate model is favoured by the combination of SZ and X-ray data, in agreement with predictions. Finally, based on the combination of the same SZ and X-ray data, we constrain the total amount of gas in Virgo. Under the hypothesis that the abundance of baryons in Virgo is representative of the cosmic average, we also infer a distance for Virgo of approximately 18 Mpc, in good agreement with previous estimates.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527743DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.05156arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ade, P. A. R.0000-0002-5127-0401
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
Doré, O.0000-0002-5009-7563
Helou, G.0000-0003-3367-3415
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Rusholme, B.0000-0001-7648-4142
Additional Information:© 2016 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 13 November 2015; Accepted 27 September 20; Published online 12 December 2016. The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES, and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF, and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at http://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/planck-collaboration. Some of the results presented in this work are based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton  an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
NASAUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO) UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Spanish Supercomputing Network (RES)UNSPECIFIED
Finnish Ministry of Employment and the EconomyUNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
DTU Space (Denmark)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education and Research (Switzerland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES) UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)UNSPECIFIED
ESA Member StatesUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:ISM: general – galaxies: clusters: individual: Virgo – galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium – cosmic background radiation – large-scale structure of Universe
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-135500084
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190701-135500084
Official Citation:Planck intermediate results - XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster. Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, et. al. A&A, 596 (2016) A101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527743
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96867
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Jul 2019 18:59
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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