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Calcite dissolution rates in seawater: Lab vs. in-situ measurements and inhibition by organic matter

Naviaux, John D. and Subhas, Adam V. and Dong, Sijia S. and Rollins, Nick E. and Liu, Xuewu and Byrne, Robert H. and Berelson, William M. and Adkins, Jess F. (2019) Calcite dissolution rates in seawater: Lab vs. in-situ measurements and inhibition by organic matter. Marine Chemistry, 215 . Art. No. 103684. ISSN 0304-4203. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190708-154640644

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Abstract

Ocean acidification from fossil fuel burning is lowering the mean global ocean saturation state (Ω = [Ca^(2+)][CO_3^(2−)]/K_(sp)′), thus increasing the thermodynamic driving force for calcium carbonate minerals to dissolve. This dissolution process will eventually neutralize the input of anthropogenic CO_2, but the relationship between Ω and calcite dissolution rates in seawater is still debated. Recent advances have also revealed that spectrophotometric measurements of seawater pHs, and therefore in-situ Ωs, are systematically lower than pHs/Ωs calculated from measurements of alkalinity (Alk) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The calcite saturation horizon, defined as the depth in the water column where Ω = 1, therefore shifts by ~5–10% depending on the parameters used to calculate Ω. The “true” saturation horizon remains unknown. To resolve these issues, we developed a new in-situreactor and measured dissolution rates of ^(13)C-labeled inorganic calcite at four stations across a transect of the North Pacific Ocean. In-situ saturation was calculated using both Alk-DIC (Ω_((Alk, DIC))) and Alk-pH (Ω_((Alk, pH))) pairs. We compare in-situ dissolution rates with rates measured in filtered, poisoned, UV-treated seawater at 5 and 21 °C under laboratory conditions. We observe in-situ dissolution above Ω_((Alk, DIC)) = 1, but not above Ω_((Alk, pH)) = 1. We emphasize that marine carbonate system equilibria should be reevaluated and that care should be taken when using proxies calibrated to historical Ω_((Alk, DIC)). Our results further demonstrate that calcite dissolution rates are slower in-situ than in the lab by a factor of ~4, but that they each possess similar reaction orders (n) when fit to the empirical Rate = k(1-Ω)^n equation. The reaction orders are n < 1 for 0.8 < Ω < 1 and n = 4.7 for 0 < Ω < 0.8, with the kink in rates at Ω_(crit) = 0.8 being consistent with a mechanistic transition from step edge retreat to homogenous etch pit formation. We reconcile the offset between lab and in-situ rates by dissolving calcite in the presence of elevated orthophosphate (20 μm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, where DOC is in the form of oxalic acid (20 μm), gallic acid (20 μm), and D-glucose (100 μm). We find that soluble reactive phosphate has no effect on calcite dissolution rates from pH 5.5–7.5, but the addition of DOC in the form of D-glucose and oxalic acid slows laboratory dissolution rates to match in-situ observations, potentially by inhibiting the retreat rate of steps on the calcite surface. Our lab and in-situ rate data form an envelope around previous in-situ dissolution measurements and may be considered outer bounds for dissolution rates in low/high DOC waters. The lower bound (high DOC) is most realistic for particles formed in, and sinking out of, surface waters, and is described by R_((mol cm-2 s-1)) = 10^(–14.3±0.2)(1-Ω)^(0.11±0.1) for 0.8 < Ω < 1, and R_((mol cm-2 s-1)) = 10^(–10.8±0.4)(1-Ω)^(4.7±0.7) for 0 < Ω < 0.8. These rate equations are derived from in-situ measurements and may be readily implemented into marine geochemical models to describe water column calcite dissolution.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2019.103684DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Subhas, Adam V.0000-0002-7688-6624
Dong, Sijia S.0000-0002-5811-9333
Adkins, Jess F.0000-0002-3174-5190
Additional Information:© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Received 20 March 2019, Revised 15 June 2019, Accepted 4 July 2019, Available online 5 July 2019.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFOCE-1220600
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190708-154640644
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190708-154640644
Official Citation:John D. Naviaux, Adam V. Subhas, Sijia Dong, Nick E. Rollins, Xuewu Liu, Robert H. Byrne, William M. Berelson, Jess F. Adkins, Calcite dissolution rates in seawater: Lab vs. in-situ measurements and inhibition by organic matter, Marine Chemistry, Volume 215, 2019, 103684, ISSN 0304-4203, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2019.103684. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304420319300763)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:96927
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:08 Jul 2019 22:59
Last Modified:24 Oct 2019 16:58

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