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GROWTH on S190425z: Searching Thousands of Square Degrees to Identify an Optical or Infrared Counterpart to a Binary Neutron Star Merger with the Zwicky Transient Facility and Palomar Gattini-IR

Coughlin, Michael W. and Ahumada, Tomás and Anand, Shreya and De, Kishalay and Hankins, Matthew J. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Singer, Leo P. and Bellm, Eric C. and Andreoni, Igor and Cenko, S. Bradley and Cooke, Jeff and Copperwheat, Christopher M. and Dugas, Alison M. and Jencson, Jacob E. and Perley, Daniel A. and Yu, Po-Chieh and Bhalerao, Varun and Kumar, Harsh and Bloom, Joshua S. and Anupama, G. C. and Ashley, Michael C. B. and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Biswas, Rahul and Buckley, David A. H. and Burdge, Kevin B. and Cook, David O. and Cromer, John and Cunningham, Virginia and D'Aì, Antonino and Dekany, Richard G. and Delacroix, Alexandre and Dichiara, Simone and Duev, Dmitry A. and Dutta, Anirban and Feeney, Michael and Frederick, Sara and Gatkine, Pradip and Ghosh, Shaon and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Golkhou, V. Zach and Goobar, Ariel and Graham, Matthew J. and Hanayama, Hidekazu and Horiuchi, Takashi and Hung, Tiara and Jha, Saurabh W. and Kong, Albert K. H. and Giomi, Matteo and Kaplan, David L. and Karambelkar, V. R. and Kowalski, Marek and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Kupfer, Thomas and Masci, Frank J. and Mazzali, Paolo and Moore, Anna M. and Mogotsi, Moses and Neill, James D. and Ngeow, Chow-Choong and Martínez-Palomera, Jorge and La Parola, Valentina and Pavana, M. and Ofek, Eran O. and Patil, Atharva Sunil and Riddle, Reed and Rigault, Mickael and Rusholme, Ben and Serabyn, Eugene and Shupe, David L. and Sharma, Yashvi and Singh, Avinash and Sollerman, Jesper and Soon, Jamie and Staats, Kai and Taggart, Kirsty and Tan, Hanjie and Travouillon, Tony and Troja, Eleonora and Waratkar, Gaurav and Yatsu, Yoichi (2019) GROWTH on S190425z: Searching Thousands of Square Degrees to Identify an Optical or Infrared Counterpart to a Binary Neutron Star Merger with the Zwicky Transient Facility and Palomar Gattini-IR. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 885 (1). Art. No. L19. ISSN 2041-8213. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab4ad8.

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The third observing run by LVC has brought the discovery of many compact binary coalescences. Following the detection of the first binary neutron star merger in this run (LIGO/Virgo S190425z), we performed a dedicated follow-up campaign with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and Palomar Gattini-IR telescopes. The initial skymap of this single-detector gravitational wave (GW) trigger spanned most of the sky observable from Palomar Observatory. Covering 8000 deg² of the initial skymap over the next two nights, corresponding to 46% integrated probability, ZTF system achieved a depth of ≈21 m_(AB) in g- and r-bands. Palomar Gattini-IR covered 2200 square degrees in J-band to a depth of 15.5 mag, including 32% integrated probability based on the initial skymap. The revised skymap issued the following day reduced these numbers to 21% for the ZTF and 19% for Palomar Gattini-IR. We narrowed 338,646 ZTF transient "alerts" over the first two nights of observations to 15 candidate counterparts. Two candidates, ZTF19aarykkb and ZTF19aarzaod, were particularly compelling given that their location, distance, and age were consistent with the GW event, and their early optical light curves were photometrically consistent with that of kilonovae. These two candidates were spectroscopically classified as young core-collapse supernovae. The remaining candidates were ruled out as supernovae. Palomar Gattini-IR did not identify any viable candidates with multiple detections only after merger time. We demonstrate that even with single-detector GW events localized to thousands of square degrees, systematic kilonova discovery is feasible.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Ahumada, Tomás0000-0002-2184-6430
Anand, Shreya0000-0003-3768-7515
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Hankins, Matthew J.0000-0001-9315-8437
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Singer, Leo P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Cooke, Jeff0000-0001-5703-2108
Copperwheat, Christopher M.0000-0001-7983-8698
Jencson, Jacob E.0000-0001-5754-4007
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Yu, Po-Chieh0000-0001-8894-0854
Bhalerao, Varun0000-0002-6112-7609
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Ashley, Michael C. B.0000-0003-1412-2028
Biswas, Rahul0000-0002-5741-7195
Buckley, David A. H.0000-0002-7004-9956
Burdge, Kevin B.0000-0002-7226-836X
Cook, David O.0000-0002-6877-7655
Cunningham, Virginia0000-0003-2292-0441
D'Aì, Antonino0000-0002-5042-1036
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Frederick, Sara0000-0001-9676-730X
Gatkine, Pradip0000-0002-1955-2230
Ghosh, Shaon0000-0001-9901-6253
Goldstein, Daniel A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Goobar, Ariel0000-0002-4163-4996
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Hanayama, Hidekazu0000-0001-8221-6048
Hung, Tiara0000-0002-9878-7889
Jha, Saurabh W.0000-0001-8738-6011
Kong, Albert K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Kaplan, David L.0000-0001-6295-2881
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Mazzali, Paolo0000-0001-6876-8284
Moore, Anna M.0000-0002-2894-6936
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Ngeow, Chow-Choong0000-0001-8771-7554
Martínez-Palomera, Jorge0000-0002-7395-4935
La Parola, Valentina0000-0002-8087-6488
Pavana, M.0000-0002-0000-1543
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Rigault, Mickael0000-0002-8121-2560
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Troja, Eleonora0000-0002-1869-7817
Waratkar, Gaurav0000-0003-3630-9440
Yatsu, Yoichi0000-0003-1890-3913
Alternate Title:GROWTH on GW190425: Searching thousands of square degrees to identify an optical or infrared counterpart to a binary neutron star merger with the Zwicky Transient Facility and Palomar Gattini IR
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 July 29; revised 2019 September 24; accepted 2019 October 4; published 2019 October 30. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK) and University of Sydney (Australia). Based on observations made with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The 0.7 m GROWTH-India Telescope (GIT) is set up by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) with support from the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India grant No. IUSSTF/PIRE Program/GROWTH/2015-16. It is located at the Indian Astronomical Observatory, IIA at Hanle, Ladakh (India). This publication has made use of data collected at Lulin Observatory, partly supported by MoST grant 105-2112-M-008-024-MY3. The KPED team thanks the National Science Foundation and the National Optical Astronomical Observatory for making the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope available. We thank the observatory staff at Kitt Peak for their efforts to assist Robo-AO KP operations. The KPED team thanks the National Science Foundation, the National Optical Astronomical Observatory, the Caltech Space Innovation Council, and the Murty family for support in the building and operation of KPED. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1106171. The Palomar Gattini-IR project thanks the Mount Cuba Foundation, Heising-Simons Foundation, the ANU Futures Scheme, the Binational Science Foundation. and Caltech for generous support. G.C.A. and V.B. acknowledge partial support from SERB and IUSSTF. J.S. acknowledges support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. E.O. is grateful for support by a grant from the Israeli Ministry of Science, ISF, Minerva, BSF, BSF transformative program, and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation (grant No. 1829/12). P.G. is supported by NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship (ASTRO18F-0085). C.-C.N., A.P., and P.-C.Y. thank the funding from Ministry of Science and Technology (Taiwan) under grants 104-2923-M-008-004-MY5, 106-2112-M-008-007, 107-2119-M-008-012, 107-2119-M-008-014-MY2 E.B. and V.Z.G. acknowledge support from the University of Washington College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Astronomy, and the DIRAC Institute. University of Washington's DIRAC Institute is supported through generous gifts from the Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences, and the Washington Research Foundation. E.B. acknowledges support from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which is supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members. E.B. is supported in part by the NSF AAG grant 1812779 and grant #2018-0908 from the Heising-Simons Foundation. M.W.C. is supported by the David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral Fellowship at the California Institute of Technology. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. D.L.K. was supported by NSF grant AST-1816492. A.K.H.K. acknowledges support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China (Taiwan) under grants 106-2628-M-007-005 and 107-2628-M-007-003. J.S.B. and J.M.-P. are partially supported by a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Data-Driven Discovery grant. H.K. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant #1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. S.A. acknowledges support from the PMA Division Medberry Fellowship at the California Institute of Technology. R.B., A.G., and J.S. acknowledge support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment funded by the Swedish National Science Foundation. J.S. acknowledges support by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship. M.R. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 759194 - USNAC).
Group:Zwicky Transient Facility, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)UNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Stockholm UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Elektronen-SynchrotronUNSPECIFIED
Humboldt UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-008-024-MY3
Mount Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Israel Science Foundation1829/12
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
NASA Earth and Space Science FellowshipASTRO18F-0085
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)104-2923-M-008-004-MY5
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-008-007
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-008-012
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-008-014-MY2
Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Washington Research FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Heising-Simons Foundation2018-0908
David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2628-M-007-005
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2628-M-007-003
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Australian GovernmentUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)759194
Subject Keywords:Gravitational wave astronomy; Transient detection; Optical telescopes
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gravitational wave astronomy (675); Transient detection (1957); Optical telescopes (1174)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190802-094555948
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Michael W. Coughlin et al 2019 ApJL 885 L19
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:97615
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:02 Aug 2019 18:16
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:33

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