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Generation and manipulation of Schrödinger cat states in Rydberg atom arrays

Omran, A. and Levine, H. and Keesling, A. and Semeghini, G. and Wang, T. T. and Ebadi, S. and Bernien, H. and Zibrov, A. S. and Pichler, H. and Choi, S. and Cui, J. and Rossignolo, M. and Rembold, P. and Montangero, S. and Calarco, T. and Endres, M. and Greiner, M. and Vuletić, V. and Lukin, M. D. (2019) Generation and manipulation of Schrödinger cat states in Rydberg atom arrays. Science, 365 (6453). pp. 570-574. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.aax9743.

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Quantum entanglement involving coherent superpositions of macroscopically distinct states is among the most striking features of quantum theory, but its realization is challenging because such states are extremely fragile. Using a programmable quantum simulator based on neutral atom arrays with interactions mediated by Rydberg states, we demonstrate the creation of “Schrödinger cat” states of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type with up to 20 qubits. Our approach is based on engineering the energy spectrum and using optimal control of the many-body system. We further demonstrate entanglement manipulation by using GHZ states to distribute entanglement to distant sites in the array, establishing important ingredients for quantum information processing and quantum metrology.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper Information
Omran, A.0000-0002-2253-0278
Keesling, A.0000-0003-3931-0949
Zibrov, A. S.0000-0002-3200-4351
Endres, M.0000-0002-4461-224X
Greiner, M.0000-0002-2935-2363
Lukin, M. D.0000-0002-8658-1007
Additional Information:© 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works This is an article distributed under the terms of the Science Journals Default License. 13 May 2019; accepted 8 July 2019. We thank D. Sels and C. Reimer for helpful discussions. Funding: The authors acknowledge financial support from the Center for Ultracold Atoms, the National Science Foundation, Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. H.L. acknowledges support from the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) fellowship. G.S. acknowledges support from a fellowship from the Max Planck/Harvard Research Center for Quantum Optics. J.C., S.M., and T.C. acknowledge funding from the EC H2020 grants 765267 (QuSCo), 817482 (PASQuANS), and QuantERA QTFLAG; the DFG SPP 1929 (GiRyd) and TWITTER; the IQST Alliance; and the Italian PRIN 2017. Author contributions: A.O., H.L., A.K., G.S., T.T.W., S.E., H.B., A.S.Z., and M.E. built the experimental setup. A.O., H.L., A.K., and G.S. performed the measurements and analyzed the data. H.P., S.C., J.C., and S.M. performed theoretical analysis. J.C., M.R., P.R., S.M., and T.C. provided and maintained the optimal control server. All work was supervised by M.G., V.V., and M.D.L. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the manuscript. Competing interests: M.G., V.V., and M.D.L. have an equity interest in and serve on the advisory board of QuEra Computing. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and the supplementary materials.
Group:Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold AtomsUNSPECIFIED
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck/Harvard Research Center for Quantum OpticsUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)765267
European Research Council (ERC)817482
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SPP 1929
Integrated Quantum Science and TechnologyUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)PRIN 2017
Issue or Number:6453
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190808-135256638
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Generation and manipulation of Schrödinger cat states in Rydberg atom arrays BY A. OMRAN, H. LEVINE, A. KEESLING, G. SEMEGHINI, T. T. WANG, S. EBADI, H. BERNIEN, A. S. ZIBROV, H. PICHLER, S. CHOI, J. CUI, M. ROSSIGNOLO, P. REMBOLD, S. MONTANGERO, T. CALARCO, M. ENDRES, M. GREINER, V. VULETIĆ, M. D. LUKIN SCIENCE 09 Aug 2019: Vol. 365, Issue 6453, pp. 570-574 DOI: 10.1126/science.aax9743
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:97710
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Aug 2019 21:06
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:33

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