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Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III-V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces

Wu, Pin Chieh and Pala, Ragip A. and Kafaie Shirmanesh, Ghazaleh and Cheng, Wen-Hui and Sokhoyan, Ruzan and Grajower, Meir and Alam, Muhammad Z. and Lee, Duhyun and Atwater, Harry A. (2019) Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III-V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces. Nature Communications, 10 . Art. No. 3654. ISSN 2041-1723. PMCID PMC6692380. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190813-112158655

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Abstract

Tunable metasurfaces enable dynamical control of the key constitutive properties of light at a subwavelength scale. To date, electrically tunable metasurfaces at near-infrared wavelengths have been realized using free carrier modulation, and switching of thermo-optical, liquid crystal and phase change media. However, the highest performance and lowest loss discrete optoelectronic modulators exploit the electro-optic effect in multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. Here, we report an all-dielectric active metasurface based on electro-optically tunable III–V multiple-quantum-wells patterned into subwavelength elements that each supports a hybrid Mie-guided mode resonance. The quantum-confined Stark effect actively modulates this volumetric hybrid resonance, and we observe a relative reflectance modulation of 270% and a phase shift from 0° to ~70°. Additionally, we demonstrate beam steering by applying an electrical bias to each element to actively change the metasurface period, an approach that can also realize tunable metalenses, active polarizers, and flat spatial light modulators.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11598-8DOIArticle
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692380PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Wu, Pin Chieh0000-0002-5781-9696
Kafaie Shirmanesh, Ghazaleh0000-0003-1666-3215
Cheng, Wen-Hui0000-0003-3233-4606
Sokhoyan, Ruzan0000-0003-4599-6350
Atwater, Harry A.0000-0001-9435-0201
Alternate Title:Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III–V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces
Additional Information:© 2019 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 16 February 2019; Accepted 15 July 2019; Published 13 August 2019. This work was supported by Samsung Electronics (P.C.W.), and NASA Early Stage Innovations (ESI) Grant 80NSSC19K0213 (H.A.A. & G.K.S.). The authors used facilities supported by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI). P.C.W. acknowledges the support from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (Grant numbers: 108-2112-M-006-021-MY3; 107-2923-M-001-010-MY3; 107-2923-M-006-004-MY3). P.C.W. also acknowledges the support in part by Higher Education Sprout Project, Ministry of Education to the Headquarters of University Advancement at National Cheng Kung University (NCKU). The authors deeply appreciate help in the form of the close reading of the manuscript and review responses by Rebecca Glaudell, Phil Jahelka, Kelly Mauser, Michael Kelzenberg, Joseph DuChene, and Haley Bauser. The authors also thank Artur Davoyan for useful discussions. Data availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the authors on reasonable request; see author contributions for specific data sets. Author Contributions: P.C.W, R.A.P., and H.A.A. conceived the original idea. P.C.W. performed the numerical design, device fabrication, built up the optical setup, and performed the optical as well as high-speed measurements, analyzed numerical and experimental data, and wrote the paper; R.A.P. performed the numerical design, developed the dry etching process, and helped with the build-up of optical setup for measurement; G.K.S. helped with the sample fabrication, designed and build-up the PCB for individually electrical control of metasurface elements; W.-H.C. helped with the sample fabrication, data analysis, and optical measurement; R.S. developed the theoretical model for MQWs, performed calculations, and wrote the paper; M.G. helped with the high-speed measurement and data analysis; M.A. and D.L. helped with discussions; H.A.A. organized the project, designed experiments, analyzed the results, and prepare the papers. All authors discussed the results and commented on the paper. The authors declare no competing interests.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Samsung ElectronicsUNSPECIFIED
NASA80NSSC19K0213
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-006-021-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2923-M-001-010-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2923-M-006-004-MY3
National Cheng Kung UniversityUNSPECIFIED
PubMed Central ID:PMC6692380
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190813-112158655
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190813-112158655
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:97864
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Aug 2019 18:33
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:35

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