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Interseismic quiescence and triggered slip of active normal faults of Kīlauea Volcano's south flank during 2001-2018

Wang, K. and MacArthur, H. S. and Johanson, I. and Montgomery-Brown, E. K. and Poland, M. P. and Cannon, E. C. and d’Alessio, M. and Bürgmann, R. (2019) Interseismic quiescence and triggered slip of active normal faults of Kīlauea Volcano's south flank during 2001-2018. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 124 (9). pp. 9780-9794. ISSN 2169-9313. doi:10.1029/2019JB017419.

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The mobile south flank of Kīlauea Volcano hosts two normal fault systems, the Koa'e fault system (KFS) and the Hilina fault system (HFS). In historical time, at least three M>6.5 earthquakes have occurred on the basal detachment of the Kīlauea Volcano's south flank, with the most recent being the 4 May 2018 M6.9 earthquake. Here we analyze kinematic Global Positioning System data collected from 2001 to 2017 and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data before, during, and after the 2018 M6.9 earthquake to determine the crustal motion across the HFS and KFS faults. Our results indicate that the HFS faults did not significantly slip during the interseismic period from 2007 to 2011. Despite its substantial magnitude, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data show that the 2018 M6.9 earthquake triggered subcentimeter level slip along sections of the previously mapped HFS branches. Up to 20 cm of offset occurred on what appears to be a newly formed (or previously unknown) fault near the eastern end of the HFS. During the 3 months following the M6.9 earthquake, up to ~30 cm of slip occurred along the KFS, which helps accommodate rapid large‐scale subsidence of Kīlauea's summit region as large volumes of summit reservoir magma fed the lower East Rift Zone eruption. The HFS appears to activate only in concert with large earthquakes on the basal detachment. The KFS, on the other hand, moves both seismically during small local earthquakes and aseismically in response to nearby earthquakes and caldera subsidence.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Wang, K.0000-0002-9725-3295
Johanson, I.0000-0002-6049-2225
Montgomery-Brown, E. K.0000-0001-6787-2055
Poland, M. P.0000-0001-5240-6123
Bürgmann, R.0000-0002-3560-044X
Additional Information:© 2019 American Geophysical Union. Received 23 JAN 2019; Accepted 11 AUG 2019; Accepted article online 16 AUG 2019; Published online 3 SEP 2019. We acknowledge support by the UC Berkeley Larsen fund and the NASA ESI program (NNX16AL17G). Sentinel‐1 data are copyright of European Space Agency (ESA) and archived and distributed by Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF). COSMO‐Skymed data are copyright of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and were provided courtesy of the Hawai'i Supersite. Field activities were conducted within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the authors are grateful to students from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes' International Training Course, and others for collecting kinematic GPS survey data on the Hilina Pali over many years. We thank Don Swanson and two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that helped improve this manuscript. The GPS velocities used in this study are provided in the supporting information online of this manuscript. CSK SAR data are available from the Italian Space Agency (ASI) via the Hawaiian Supersite (http://geo‐‐volcanoes‐supersite/). The original Sentinel‐1 data are downloaded from the Alaska Satellite Facility ( Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of California, BerkeleyUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:InSAR; Volcano; Kilauea Volcano; Hilina Fault; Triggered slip; Earthquake
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190819-141626938
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Wang, K., MacArthur, H. S., Johanson, I., Montgomery‐Brown, E. K., Poland, M. P., Cannon, E. C., et al. (2019). Interseismic quiescence and triggered slip of active normal faults of Kīlauea Volcano's south flank during 2001–2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124, 9780–9794.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:98006
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Aug 2019 21:31
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:35

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