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Influence of ring faulting in localizing surface deformation at subsiding calderas

Liu, Yuan-Kai and Ruch, Joël and Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes and Jónsson, Sigurjón (2019) Influence of ring faulting in localizing surface deformation at subsiding calderas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 526 . Art. No. 115784. ISSN 0012-821X. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115784.

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Caldera unrest can lead to major volcanic eruptions. Analysis of subtle subsidence or inflation at calderas helps understanding of their subsurface volcanic processes and related hazards. Several subsiding calderas have shown similar patterns of ground deformation composed of broad subsidence affecting the entire volcanic edifice and stronger localized subsidence focused inside the caldera. Physical models of internal deformation sources used to explain these observations typically consist of two magma reservoirs at different depths in an elastic half-space. However, such models ignore important subsurface structures, such as ring faults, that may influence the deformation pattern. Here we use both analog subsidence experiments and boundary element modeling to study the three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of caldera subsidence processes, evolving from an initial downsag to a later collapse stage. We propose that broad subsidence is mainly caused by volume decrease within a single magma reservoir, whereas buried ring-fault activity localizes the deformation within the caldera. Omitting ring faulting in physical models of subsiding calderas and using multiple point/sill-like sources instead can result in erroneous estimates of magma reservoir depths and volume changes.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Liu, Yuan-Kai0000-0003-4032-9444
Jónsson, Sigurjón0000-0001-5378-7079
Additional Information:© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Received 26 March 2019, Revised 16 August 2019, Accepted 18 August 2019, Available online 4 September 2019. We thank Prof. Sigurdur Thoroddsen, Dr. Nadia Kouraytem, Dr. Andres A. Aguirre-Pablo, and Aditya Jetly in the High-Speed Fluids Imaging Laboratory at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for providing camera equipment and laboratory facilities for our analog experiments. The granular material used in the analog experiments was provided by Dr. Daniele Trippanera (Roma Tre University, now at KAUST). We also thank Mehdi Nikkhoo for fruitfull discussions as well as Yosuke Aoki and one anonymous reviewer that helped to improve the quality of the manuscript. The research reported in this publication was supported by KAUST, award number BAS/1/1353-01-01.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)BAS/1/1353-01-01
Subject Keywords:volcanic deformation; ring faulting; caldera collapse; analog models; boundary element modeling; InSAR
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190906-092220438
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Official Citation:Yuan-Kai Liu, Joël Ruch, Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Sigurjón Jónsson, Influence of ring faulting in localizing surface deformation at subsiding calderas, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 526, 2019, 115784, ISSN 0012-821X, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:98471
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Sep 2019 17:35
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:39

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