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Approximate Symmetries and Gravity

Fichet, Sylvain and Saraswat, Prashant (2020) Approximate Symmetries and Gravity. Journal of High Energy Physics, 2020 (1). Art. No. 88. ISSN 1126-6708. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2020)088.

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There are strong reasons to believe that global symmetries of quantum theories cannot be exact in the presence of gravity. While this has been argued at the qualitative level, establishing a quantitative statement is more challenging. In this work we take new steps towards quantifying symmetry violation in EFTs with gravity. First, we evaluate global charge violation by microscopic black holes present in a thermal system, which represents an irreducible, universal effect at finite temperature. Second, based on general QFT considerations, we propose that local symmetry-violating processes should be faster than black hole-induced processes at any sub-Planckian temperature. Such a proposal can be seen as part of the “swampland” program to constrain EFTs emerging from quantum gravity. Considering an EFT perspective, we formulate a con- jecture which requires the existence of operators violating global symmetry and places quantitative bounds on them. We study the interplay of our conjecture with emergent symmetries in QFT. In models where gauged U(1)’s enforce accidental symmetries, we find that constraints from the Weak Gravity Conjecture can ensure that our conjecture is satisfied. We also study the consistency of the conjecture with QFT models of emergent symmetries such as extradimensional localization, the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, and the clockwork mechanism.

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Additional Information:© 2020 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Article funded by SCOAP3. Received: September 18, 2019; Revised: December 17, 2019; Accepted: December 24, 2019; Published: January 15, 2020. SF is supported by the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) under grants #2011/11973, #2014/21477-2 and #2018/11721-4. PS is supported by the DuBridge Fellowship of the Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, under Award Number DE-SC0011632.
Group:Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)2011/11973
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)2014/21477-2
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)2018/11721-4
Lee A. DuBridge FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0011632
Subject Keywords:Effective Field Theories; Global Symmetries; Black Holes
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Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190910-112618860
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Official Citation:Fichet, S. & Saraswat, P. J. High Energ. Phys. (2020) 2020: 88.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:98550
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:10 Sep 2019 20:38
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:39

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