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Characterization of laboratory and real driving emissions of individual Euro 6 light-duty vehicles – Fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation

Simonen, Pauli and Karjalainen, Joni and Karjalainen, Panu and Rönkkö, Topi and Timonen, Hilkka and Saarikoski, Sanna and Aurela, Minna and Bloss, Matthew and Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios and Kontses, Anastasios and Amanatidis, Stavros and Dimaratos, Athanasios and Samaras, Zissis and Keskinen, Jorma and Dal Maso, Miikka and Ntziachristos, Leonidas (2019) Characterization of laboratory and real driving emissions of individual Euro 6 light-duty vehicles – Fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation. Environmental Pollution, 255 (1). Art. No. 113175. ISSN 0269-7491. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190930-133755891

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Abstract

Emissions from passenger cars are one of major sources that deteriorate urban air quality. This study presents characterization of real-drive emissions from three Euro 6 emission level passenger cars (two gasoline and one diesel) in terms of fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation. The gasoline vehicles were also characterized by chassis dynamometer studies. In the real-drive study, the particle number emissions during regular driving were 1.1–12.7 times greater than observed in the laboratory tests (4.8 times greater on average), which may be caused by more effective nucleation process when diluted by real polluted and humid ambient air. However, the emission factors measured in laboratory were still much higher than the regulatory value of 6 × 10^(11) particles km^(−1). The higher emission factors measured here result probably from the fact that the regulatory limit considers only non-volatile particles larger than 23 nm, whereas here, all particles (also volatile) larger than 3 nm were measured. Secondary aerosol formation potential was the highest after a vehicle cold start when most of the secondary mass was organics. After the cold start, the relative contributions of ammonium, sulfate and nitrate increased. Using a novel approach to study secondary aerosol formation under real-drive conditions with the chase method resulted mostly in emission factors below detection limit, which was not in disagreement with the laboratory findings.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113175DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Karjalainen, Panu0000-0003-2824-0033
Amanatidis, Stavros0000-0002-4924-8424
Additional Information:© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Received 4 June 2019, Revised 19 August 2019, Accepted 3 September 2019, Available online 12 September 2019. This Paper has been recommended for acceptance by Dr. Admir Créso Targino. This work was supported by the Health relevant and energy efficient regulation of exhaust particle emissions (HERE) project [decision number 40330/13], funded by Business Finland (Tekes), AGCO Power Oy, Dinex Finland Oy, Dekati Oy, Neste Oyj, Pegasor Oy and Wärtsilä Finland Oy. Pauli Simonen and Joni Kalliokoski acknowledge Tampere University Graduate School.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Tekes40330/13
AGCO Power OyUNSPECIFIED
Dinex Finland OyUNSPECIFIED
Dekati OyUNSPECIFIED
Neste OyjUNSPECIFIED
Pegasor OyUNSPECIFIED
Wärtsilä Finland OyUNSPECIFIED
Tampere UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:RDE; Secondary organic aerosol; SOA; Particle number; PM
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20190930-133755891
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190930-133755891
Official Citation:Pauli Simonen, Joni Kalliokoski, Panu Karjalainen, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Sanna Saarikoski, Minna Aurela, Matthew Bloss, Georgios Triantafyllopoulos, Anastasios Kontses, Stavros Amanatidis, Athanasios Dimaratos, Zissis Samaras, Jorma Keskinen, Miikka Dal Maso, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Characterization of laboratory and real driving emissions of individual Euro 6 light-duty vehicles – Fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation, Environmental Pollution, Volume 255, Part 1, 2019, 113175, ISSN 0269-7491, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113175. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749119329586)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:98950
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:30 Sep 2019 22:23
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 21:45

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