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Supernova 2014C: ongoing interaction with extended circumstellar material with silicate dust

Tinyanont, Samaporn and Lau, Ryan M. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Maeda, Keiichi and Smith, Nathan and Fox, Ori D. and Gehrz, Robert D. and De, Kishalay and Jencson, Jacob and Bally, John and Masci, Frank (2019) Supernova 2014C: ongoing interaction with extended circumstellar material with silicate dust. Astrophysical Journal, 887 (1). Art. No. 75. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab521b.

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Supernova (SN) 2014C is unique: a seemingly typical hydrogen-poor SN that started to interact with a dense, hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) ~100 days post-explosion. The delayed interaction suggests a detached CSM shell, unlike in a typical SN IIn where the CSM is much closer and the interaction commences earlier post-explosion, indicating a different mass-loss history. We present infrared observations of SN 2014C 1–5 yr post-explosion, including uncommon 9.7 μm imaging with COMICS on the Subaru telescope. Spectroscopy shows the intermediate-width He I 1.083 μm emission from the interacting region up to the latest epoch 1639 days post-explosion. The last Spitzer/IRAC photometry at 1920 days confirms ongoing CSM interaction. The 1–10 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be explained by a dust model with a mixture of 62% carbonaceous and 38% silicate dust, pointing to a chemically inhomogeneous CSM. The inference of silicate dust is the first among interacting SNe. An SED model with purely carbonaceous CSM dust, while possible, requires more than 0.22 M_⊙ of dust, an order of magnitude larger than what has been observed in any SNe at this epoch. The light curve beyond 500 days is well fit by an interaction model with a wind-driven CSM and a mass-loss rate of ~10⁻³ M⊙ yr⁻¹, which presents an additional CSM density component exterior to the constant-density shell reported previously in the literature. SN 2014C could originate in a binary system, similar to RY Scuti, which would explain the observed chemical and density profile inhomogeneity in the CSM.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Tinyanont, Samaporn0000-0002-1481-4676
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Maeda, Keiichi0000-0003-2611-7269
Fox, Ori D.0000-0003-2238-1572
Gehrz, Robert D.0000-0003-1319-4089
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Jencson, Jacob0000-0001-5754-4007
Bally, John0000-0001-8135-6612
Masci, Frank0000-0002-8532-9395
Additional Information:© 2019. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 September 13; revised 2019 October 17; accepted 2019 October 27; published 2019 December 11. We thank Takashi Moriya, Itsuki Sakon, and Takashi Onaka for helpful discussions. We thank Takuya Fujiyoshi for conducting the COMICS observations. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK), and University of Sydney (Australia). K.M. acknowledges support by the JSPS KAKENHI grant (18H04585, 18H05223, 17H02864). R.D.G. is supported by NASA and the United States Air Force. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This work is based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work is based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The three aforementioned observatories are on the summit of Maunakea, and the authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at Palomar Observatory, which is operated by a collaboration between California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Yale University, and National Astronomical Observatories of China. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018). Facilities: Hale (WIRC - , TripleSpec) - , Spitzer - , Keck (MOSFIRE - , NIRES) - , Subaru (COMICS) - , Gemini (NIRI - , GNIRS). - Software: Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018), Spextool (Cushing et al. 2004), MOSFIRE data reduction pipeline (McLean et al. 2012), xtellcor (Vacca et al. 2003), emcee Foreman-Mackey et al. (2013), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), scipy (Jones et al. 2001).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H04585
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05223
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H02864
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Core-collapse supernovae ; Stellar mass loss
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Core-collapse supernovae (304); Stellar mass loss (1613)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191002-094807190
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Samaporn Tinyanont et al 2019 ApJ 887 75
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99006
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Oct 2019 17:10
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:43

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