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How Dense of a Circumstellar Medium Is Sufficient to Choke a Jet?

Duffell, Paul C. and Ho, Anna Y. Q. (2020) How Dense of a Circumstellar Medium Is Sufficient to Choke a Jet? Astrophysical Journal, 900 (2). Art. No. 193. ISSN 1538-4357.

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The progenitor stars of stripped-envelope high-velocity supernovae (Ic-BL SNe) can explode inside a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) that extends out to many times the progenitor radius. This complicates the question of whether all Ic-BL SNe harbor a jet, which can tunnel through the star and be viewed on-axis as a long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB). More specifically, a sufficiently dense CSM might "choke" the jet, redistributing its energy quasi-spherically. In this study, we numerically calculate the CSM density necessary for jet choking. For typical GRBs, we determine the jet is not choked in the CSM unless ρr² > 4×10¹⁹g cm⁻¹; this requires several solar masses of CSM to be situated within 10¹³ cm of the progenitor, a much higher density than any CSM observed. We conclude that typical GRB jets are not choked in the CSM. However, in many cases the CSM has sufficient mass to decelerate the jet to a modest Lorentz factor (Γ ~ 10), which should lead to a long coasting phase for the jet, observable as a long plateau (potentially up to a few days) in the afterglow light curve. For extreme cases of low-energy GRBs in a high-mass CSM, the jet will decelerate to nonrelativistic velocities, causing it to spread modestly to a larger opening angle (θ_j ≈ 20°) before breaking out of the CSM. Even in these extreme examples, the jet does not have time to redistribute its energy quasi-spherically in the CSM before breakout.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Duffell, Paul C.0000-0001-7626-9629
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Alternate Title:How Dense a CSM is Sufficient to Choke a Jet?
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 July 6; revised 2020 July 16; accepted 2020 July 22; published 2020 September 15. P.C.D. is supported by Harvard University through the ITC Fellowship. A.Y.Q.H. is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. DGE-1144469. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Subject Keywords:Circumstellar matter ; Supernovae ; Relativistic jets ; Relativistic fluid dynamics ; Gamma-ray bursts
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Circumstellar matter (241); Supernovae (1668); Relativistic jets (1390); Relativistic fluid dynamics (1389); Gamma-ray bursts (629)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191002-113243484
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Official Citation:Paul C. Duffell and Anna Y. Q. Ho 2020 ApJ 900 193
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99020
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Oct 2019 19:22
Last Modified:24 Sep 2020 22:43

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