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Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography

Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa and Arbabi, Ehsan and Kwon, Hyounghan and Faraon, Andrei (2019) Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116 (43). pp. 21379-21384. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC6815187.

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Fast, large-scale, and robust 3-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques for patterning a variety of structures with submicrometer resolution are important in many areas of science and technology such as photonics, electronics, and mechanics with a wide range of applications from tissue engineering to nanoarchitected materials. From several promising 3D manufacturing techniques for realizing different classes of structures suitable for various applications, interference lithography with diffractive masks stands out for its potential to fabricate complex structures at fast speeds. However, the interference lithography masks demonstrated generally suffer from limitations in terms of the patterns that can be generated. To overcome some of these limitations, here we propose the metasurface-mask–assisted 3D nanofabrication which provides great freedom in patterning various periodic structures. To showcase the versatility of this platform, we design metasurface masks that generate exotic periodic lattices like gyroid, rotated cubic, and diamond structures. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrate a diffractive element that can generate the diamond lattice.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Information CentralArticle
Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa0000-0002-6968-811X
Arbabi, Ehsan0000-0002-5328-3863
Faraon, Andrei0000-0002-8141-391X
Additional Information:© 2019 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND). Edited by Naomi J. Halas, Rice University, Houston, TX, and approved September 18, 2019 (received for review May 15, 2019). PNAS first published October 7, 2019. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) “Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion” Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant DE-SC0001293. The device nanofabrication was performed at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Confocal imaging was performed at the Caltech Biological Imaging Facility with the support of the Caltech Beckman Institute and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation; we thank Dr. Andres Collazo for his help in the confocal microscopy. We thank Prof. Julia Greer, Dr. Travis Blake, Prof. Amir Arbabi, and Daniel Bacon-Brown for fruitful discussion. We also thank Sana Kamali for the artistic renders. Author contributions: S.M.K. and A.F. designed research; S.M.K., E.A., and H.K. performed research; S.M.K. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; S.M.K. and E.A. analyzed data; and S.M.K., E.A., and A.F. wrote the paper. Competing interest statement: S.M.K., E.A, and A.F. are inventors of US patent application US20190173191A1 that covers the use of metasurface masks for 3D beam shaping. The authors declare no other competing interests. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. This article contains supporting information online at
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0001293
Caltech Beckman InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Arnold and Mabel Beckman FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:metasurface; 3D printing; interference lithography; beam shaping; nanophotonics
Issue or Number:43
PubMed Central ID:PMC6815187
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191007-141649074
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography. Seyedeh Mahsa Kamali, Ehsan Arbabi, Hyounghan Kwon, Andrei Faraon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Oct 2019, 116 (43) 21379-21384; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908382116
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99121
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:07 Oct 2019 22:20
Last Modified:01 Nov 2019 14:33

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